Bài giảng Essentials of Investments - Chapter 3 Securities market

Primary vs. Secondary Security Sales • Primary – New issue – Key factor: issuer receives the proceeds from the sale • Secondary – Existing owner sells to another party – Issuing firm doesn’t receive proceeds and is not directly involved

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Essentials of Investments © 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Fourth Edition Irwin / McGraw-Hill Bodie • Kane • Marcus1 Chapter 3 Securities market Essentials of Investments © 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Fourth Edition Irwin / McGraw-Hill Bodie • Kane • Marcus2 Primary vs. Secondary Security Sales • Primary – New issue – Key factor: issuer receives the proceeds from the sale • Secondary – Existing owner sells to another party – Issuing firm doesn’t receive proceeds and is not directly involved Essentials of Investments © 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Fourth Edition Irwin / McGraw-Hill Bodie • Kane • Marcus3 Investment Banking Arrangements • Underwritten vs. “Best Efforts” – Underwritten: firm commitment on proceeds to the issuing firm – Best Efforts: no firm commitment • Negotiated vs. Competitive Bid – Negotiated: issuing firm negotiates terms with investment banker – Competitive bid: issuer structures the offering and secures bids Essentials of Investments © 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Fourth Edition Irwin / McGraw-Hill Bodie • Kane • Marcus4 • Public offerings: registered with the SEC and sale is made to the investing public – Shelf registration (Rule 415, since 1982) • Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) – Evidence of underpricing – Performance Public Offerings Essentials of Investments © 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Fourth Edition Irwin / McGraw-Hill Bodie • Kane • Marcus5 Private placement: sale to a limited number of sophisticated investors not requiring the protection of registration • Dominated by institutions • Very active market for debt securities • Not active for stock offerings Private Placements Essentials of Investments © 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Fourth Edition Irwin / McGraw-Hill Bodie • Kane • Marcus6 Organization of Secondary Markets • Organized exchanges • OTC market • Third market • Fourth market Essentials of Investments © 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Fourth Edition Irwin / McGraw-Hill Bodie • Kane • Marcus7 Organized Exchanges • Auction markets with centralized order flow • Dealership function: can be competitive or assigned by the exchange (Specialists) • Securities: stock, futures contracts, options, and to a lesser extent, bonds • Examples: NYSE, AMEX, Regionals, CBOE Essentials of Investments © 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Fourth Edition Irwin / McGraw-Hill Bodie • Kane • Marcus8 Types of Orders Instructions to the brokers on how to complete the order • Market • Limit • Stop loss Essentials of Investments © 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Fourth Edition Irwin / McGraw-Hill Bodie • Kane • Marcus9 Margin Trading • Using only a portion of the proceeds for an investment • Borrow remaining component • Margin arrangements differ for stocks and futures Essentials of Investments © 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Fourth Edition Irwin / McGraw-Hill Bodie • Kane • Marcus10 Stock Margin Trading • Maximum margin is currently 50%; you can borrow up to 50% of the stock value • Set by the Fed • Maintenance margin: minimum amount equity in trading can be before additional funds must be put into the account • Margin call: notification from broker you must put up additional funds Essentials of Investments © 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Fourth Edition Irwin / McGraw-Hill Bodie • Kane • Marcus11 Margin Trading - Initial Conditions X Corp $70 50% Initial Margin 40% Maintenance Margin 1000 Shares Purchased Initial Position Stock $70,000 Borrowed $35,000 Equity 35,000 Essentials of Investments © 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Fourth Edition Irwin / McGraw-Hill Bodie • Kane • Marcus12 Margin Trading - Maintenance Margin Stock price falls to $60 per share New Position Stock $60,000 Borrowed $35,000 Equity 25,000 Margin% = $25,000/$60,000 = 41.67% Essentials of Investments © 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Fourth Edition Irwin / McGraw-Hill Bodie • Kane • Marcus13 Margin Trading - Margin Call How far can the stock price fall before a margin call? (1000P - $35,000)* / 1000P = 40% P = $58.33 * 1000P - Amt Borrowed = Equity Essentials of Investments © 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Fourth Edition Irwin / McGraw-Hill Bodie • Kane • Marcus14 Short Sales Purpose: to profit from a decline in the price of a stock or security Mechanics • Borrow stock through a dealer • Sell it and deposit proceeds and margin in an account • Closing out the position: buy the stock and return to the party from which is was borrowed Essentials of Investments © 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Fourth Edition Irwin / McGraw-Hill Bodie • Kane • Marcus15 Short Sale - Initial Conditions Z Corp 100 Shares 50% Initial Margin 30% Maintenance Margin $100 Initial Price Sale Proceeds $10,000 Margin & Equity 5,000 Stock Owed 10,000 Essentials of Investments © 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Fourth Edition Irwin / McGraw-Hill Bodie • Kane • Marcus16 Short Sale - Maintenance Margin Stock Price Rises to $110 Sale Proceeds $10,000 Initial Margin 5,000 Stock Owed 11,000 Net Equity 4,000 Margin % (4000/11000) 36% Essentials of Investments © 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Fourth Edition Irwin / McGraw-Hill Bodie • Kane • Marcus17 Short Sale - Margin Call How much can the stock price rise before a margin call? ($15,000* - 100P) / (100P) = 30% P = $115.38 * Initial margin plus sale proceeds
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