Kế toán, kiểm toán - Chapter 5: Strategic planning regarding operating processes

Customers Customer perspective of balanced scorecard Competitors Learning and growth perspective Legal and social forces Learning and growth perspective Cost Internal perspective of balanced scorecard

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Chapter 5Strategic Planning Regarding Operating ProcessesCopyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/Irwin5-*What are the Primary Influences on Selling Price?CustomersCustomer perspective of balanced scorecardCompetitorsLearning and growth perspectiveLegal and social forcesLearning and growth perspectiveCostInternal perspective of balanced scorecard5-*How does the External Market Influence Selling Prices?Pure competitionMarket determines selling priceIndividual company is price takerMonopolistic competitionMarket influences selling priceIndividual companies influence selling price through advertising5-*External Market ContinuedOligopolyVery few companies control selling priceGovernment monitors selling pricesMonopolyOne company controls market and selling priceGovernment approves price changes5-*What is the Difference between Penetration Pricing and Predatory Pricing?Penetration pricingSetting a lower initial selling price to entice customers to try the product/serviceLegalPredatory pricingSetting a low initial selling price to drive out the competitionIllegal5-*What is the Difference between Skimming Pricing and Price Gouging?Skimming pricingSetting higher initial selling prices due to uniqueness of productLegalGougingSetting high price due to unusual demandIllegal5-*What is the Difference between Life-cycle and Target Pricing?Life-cycle pricingSetting a selling price for the life of the product/service based on costDetermine cost, determine required markup, set selling priceTarget pricingSetting a selling price for the life of the product/service based on the marketDetermine selling price, determine required return, set target cost5-*What are the Common Reasons for Holding Inventory?Meet customer demandSmooth production schedulingTake advantage of quantity discountsHedge against anticipated cost increases5-*What are the Common Reasons for Not Holding Inventory?Significant costs are incurredHolding inventory allows the company the “hide” its internal process problems because demand can be met from inventory5-*What is the Difference between EOQ and JIT?EOQShort-term modelMinimizes incremental ordering and holding costsJITLong-term philosophyAssumes product-sustaining and facility-sustaining costs are relevant5-*What is the EOQ Model? Q = 2DO CWhere, D = annual demandO = incremental ordering cost (batch-related)C = incremental carrying cost (unit-related)5-*How is the JIT Model Different?Demand-pull systemKanban (visual) systemGoalsEliminate disruptions in productionReduce or eliminate nonvalue-added activitiesMinimize inventory levelsRisk: stockouts and resulting customer ill will5-*What are the Common Compensation Plans?Piece ratePay based on units completedCommissionPay based on salesHourlyPay based on hours workedSalaryPay based on period of time5-*What are Other Compensation Issues?BonusesAdditional pay based on some future eventInsuranceProtection for employeesPaid leaveProtection for the companyGross pay versus net payGross = amount earnedNet = amount received5-*How are Bonuses Calculated?Bonus amountNet income before bonus (and taxes)Net income after bonus (before taxes)Net income (after bonus and taxes)Bonus ratePercentage of bonus amount