Bài giảng Chapter 15 Qualitative Methods of Data Collection

Researcher using qualitative methods needs theoretical and social sensitivity Balance what is being observed with what is known Recognize subjective role of the researcher Think abstractly and make connections among data collected

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Chapter 15 Qualitative Methods of Data CollectionResearcher using qualitative methods needs theoretical and social sensitivityBalance what is being observed with what is knownRecognize subjective role of the researcher Think abstractly and make connections among data collected1Field InterviewingMethod for discovering how people Think and feel about their communication practicesOrder and assess their worldSemidirected conversation Goal is to uncover participant's point of viewMore than just asking questions to get answersInterviews can be formal, informal, or both2Electronic InterviewingInterviewing via email, website, or faxAdvantagesLow costCan reach geographically dispersed participantsDisadvantagesDifficult to develop rapportCreates fictional social realityCan’t check nonverbalsMay take longer3The Interview ProcessConceptualize the interview studyReview the topical and interview literatureDevelop the purpose of your studyDevelop research questions Design the interviewDecide how to find and select respondentsDetermine how many respondents are neededGenerally enough when interviews are producing the same data4The Interview ProcessConduct the interviewSelect locations and times comfortable and accessible for respondentsBest done in pairsOne to interview; one to take notesEstablish context and frame for interviewDefine situation, explain purpose, ask about taping the interview, ask if participant has any questions5The Interview Process Ask questionsCarefully construct questions to get the information you need or to prompt discussionPrepare and use an interview guideAsk relevant biographical questions to contextualize informationSome questions should allow respondent to tell his or her own storyOpen questions are better than closed questions6The Interview ProcessConclude the interviewDebrief the participantSummarize main points and new informationProvide any information that was withheld from participant before interviewAsk if participant has any questionsThank the participantTranscribe the interview7Strengths and Limitations of Interview ResearchStrengthsFace-to-face setting allows you to probe and follow upCan collect data on behavior/events you cannot observeLimitationsInterviews produce an enormous amount of dataParticipant can stray off courseParticipant may be hesitant to talk8Focus GroupsFacilitator-led group discussionUsually 5 to 10 participants60 to 90 minute group discussionRespondents encouraged to interact with one anotherNot a decision-making groupDistinguish research focus group from marketing focus group9Selecting Focus Group ParticipantsBased upon research questionSelect strangers who possess similar characteristicsUse screening questions to qualify participationMotivate those selected to participateOverrecruit by 20%10Conducting Focus Group ResearchResearcher decides level of structure and how conversation will be encouragedIn 90 minutes or lessIntroduce participantsServe refreshmentsConduct discussionSummarize what was said as feedback to participants11Focus Group ModeratorMay not be the researcherSomeone with whom participants can identifySomeone who is perceived as credibleHave the communication skills to gently guide a group’s discussionNot an interviewerNot a participant12Focus Group OutlineStandardized list of questions or topic to cover in each focus groupUsually a funnel from general to more specificOpening questions should be broadTo encourage free discussionAllow each participant to respondAllow moderator to identify other issues13Focus Group DataDiscussions are audio or videotaped Tapes transcribed and verifiedModerator should make field notes immediately following each session14Focus Group Strengths and LimitationsStrengthsProvides views and opinions in participants’ own wordsAllows consensus or conflict to emerge among participantsCan generate information about same topic from different peopleLimitationsTalkative or overly opinionated participantsHesitant to express opinions opposite of others’ opinionsResearcher can over influenceEasy to overgeneralize findings15Collecting StoriesPeople tell stories as a way of knowing, understanding, and explaining their livesStories organize and interpret their experiencesReliable guide to beliefs, attitudes, and valuesUncover how isolated events are part of a larger environmentUncover justifications people give for past actions16Sources for StoriesFrom one-on-one interviewsCritical incident techniquePositive or negative memorable eventsExist naturally in everyday conversationThrough some form of participant observationPrint forms17Strengths and Limitations of Narrative ResearchStrengthsRichness and depth of dataCollect data about communication events that would be difficult or impossible to observeLimitationsRisk in asking participants to recall troubling or negative storiesGeneralizability of findings can be restrictedDid participants embellish story?18EthnographyStudy and representation of people and their interactionHolistic description of interactants in their cultural or subcultural groupResearcher immersed into interaction field for long periods19Types of EthnographyEthnography of communicationFocus on language or speech communitiesSpeaking is structuredSpeaking is distinctiveSpeaking is socialAutoethnographyResearcher is also participantHighly personal and emotional20EthnographersShare the environment of those being studied Capture interaction as it occurs in its natural contextExperience firsthand the problems, background, language, rituals, and social relations of a specific group of people21Characteristics of EthnographyResearchers are unlikely to have well-developed research questions Researcher must work with data that do not fit neatly into categoriesFocus is on one or a small number of cases Analysis produces deep, thick descriptions22Entering the SceneGain entry by becoming part of the interaction environmentMay already be a natural actor in that environmentMust become integrated so others interact normally with and toward the researcher 23Recording ObservationsOften not be able to take notes while participatingAnything and everything is considered as dataNotes kept in detailed journals or diaries24Strengths and Limitations of Ethnographic ResearchStrengthsRich deep descriptionResearcher develops intimacy with communicators and context otherwise not possible LimitationsTime commitmentResearcher must be saturated in the data to write the research reportCan over-identify with participants25