Bài giảng Chapter 4 Introduction to Qualitative Research

Effective in capturing complexity of communication phenomena Sensitive to social construction of meaning Emphasizes communication environment of interactants

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Chapter 4 Introduction to Qualitative ResearchEffective in capturing complexity of communication phenomenaSensitive to social construction of meaningEmphasizes communication environment of interactants1What is Qualitative Research?Preserves the form and content of interaction Contextually boundDiscourse is the data Analyzed for its qualities – empirical, inductive, and interpretiveAims for subjectivityAllows interactants’ voices to be heard2Mutual Simultaneous ShapingThe here and nowEverything influences everything elseEmphasis on process and the holistic frame of interactionPlausible explanations built on what is observed3Inductive AnalysisFrom the specific to the generalExplanations and theories emerge from the dataPropositions formulated continuously throughout the data collection and data analysis process4Model for Qualitative ResearchInterdependent stagesNot linearCannot be planned in entiretyTop circle reflects design of the projectBottom reflects activities in the field5Credibility in Qualitative ResearchExtent to which data interpretations are truecorrectdependableAllows for multiple interpretations by asking “What’s plausible?”6Enhancing CredibilityTriangulation: use of several kinds of methods or data to enhance credibilityData triangulationInvestigator triangulationInterdisciplinary triangulationMember validationTaking research findings back to individuals who provided data7Conceptualizing Research Questions for Qualitative ResearchBased on previous literatureBroadly statedNondirectionalGives researcher latitude in following interesting pathsSpecific to the interaction context8Assessing Research QuestionsDoes the question ask how or what?Is the question nondirectional?Does it reference the research site?9Assessing Research QuestionsDoes the question:Focus on a specific type of interaction?Discover how meaning is developed/shared?Reveal naturally occurring communication not suitable for study in an experiment?Reveal unanticipated phenomena/influences?Reveal process that occur over time?Explore the influences of the context?10What Counts as Data in Qualitative Research?Anything that can be observed or capturedInterpreting meaningResearcher constructionSubjective valuingContingent accuracy Level of evidenceMicrolevel, midlevel, macrolevel11Making the Case for Qualitative ResearchAdvantagesDocuments the unseenProvides information about those who cannot or will not speak for themselvesSupplements information from quantitative studiesLimitationsCommunication environment must be accessible Interactants may change their behavior Observations filtered through the researcherTime consuming12Threats to CredibilityInaccuracy or incompleteness of dataProblems of interpretationWhose interpretation is being imposed?Theoretical validityWhat about data that fail to fit the interpretation?Selection biasReactivity bias13Comparing Quantitative and Qualitative ResearchOne methodology is not inherently better than the otherEach has advantages and limitationsMethod should be selected because it helps the researcher answer hypotheses and research questions14Key Differences QuantitativeUses numbersParticipants randomly selectedRemoves some level of contextualityRelies on formal logicQualitativeUses detailed descriptionsParticipants selected purposelyDeeply contextualizedInterpretive frame15Key SimilaritiesBoth quantitative and qualitative methodsRely on empirical evidenceProvide useful information for describing, understanding, and explaining human communication behaviorNeeded to develop complete picture of communication16Which Method Do You Choose?Choose the method that answers “What do I want to know?”Which method will maximize the amount of useful data generated to answer the question posed?17