Bài giảng Managing Diversity - Chapter 9 Employing Indigenous Australians

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are the most disadvantaged in the Australian community: Historically excluded from the social security, industrial relations and education systems amongst others Unemployment rate three times higher than the national average Federal and state governments working to reduce the disadvantage with proactive policies for employing Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples

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Sharlene DyerChapter 9 Employing Indigenous AustraliansCopyright  2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity9-*Synopsis Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are the most disadvantaged in the Australian community:Historically excluded from the social security, industrial relations and education systems amongst othersUnemployment rate three times higher than the national averageFederal and state governments working to reduce the disadvantage with proactive policies for employing Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoplesCopyright  2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity9-*IntroductionAboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples have:low rates of labour-force participationhigh rates of unemploymentlow job-related skillshigh job turnover relatively low wageslong durations of unemploymentlow health standardslow levels of education attainmentmore likelihood of being victims of crime.Copyright  2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity9-*Introduction (cont.)The disadvantage experienced by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in employment, health, housing and education is a consequence of the widespread destruction of their traditional economic and cultural activities (Dockery & Milsom 2007), the dispossession of their land and waterways, and their subsequent exclusion from mainstream society (Sully 1997). Copyright  2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity9-*Labour market disadvantageInferior employment outcomes are largely the result of:low levels of educationpoor health poor housingliving in remote communities with poor levels of support and infrastructure.Copyright  2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity9-*Labour market disadvantage (cont.) Another explanation is:Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are not offered jobs or are ranked so low on the list of candidates that they rarely get the chance to accept a job.Why? Some people believe Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples have such low skill levels that they are unable to perform well at any job. This is not the case. Aboriginal Torres Strait Islander peoples want to learn and want to work, but in some instances are not given the chance to do so. Discrimination remains a factor that prevents Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples from gaining meaningful employment. Copyright  2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity9-*Reducing labour market disadvantageGovernments and private sector offer a range of labour market programs including:Community Development Employment Programs (CDEP)Structured Training and Employment Projects (STEP )National Indigenous Cadetships Project (NICP)New Careers for Aboriginal Peoples project (NCAP )Indigenous Community Volunteers (ICV)Australian Employment Covenant (www.fiftythousandjobs.com.au)Corporate Leaders for Aboriginal EmploymentAboriginal Employment Strategy (AES)Copyright  2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity9-*Good corporate citizenshipGood corporate citizenship with a desire for corporate social responsibility is also driving organisations to develop enlightened employee strategies.Improving employment outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples is a key element in providing economic independence and a way to address the long-term disadvantage these groups have experienced (ACCI 2002).Employers can help by employing local people in local jobs and supporting better education and training outcomes.Copyright  2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity9-*Beneficial employment initiativesFind a match or common ground between contemporary Indigenous culture and the organisation’s culture to aid in retention.Put Indigenous employment on everyone’s agenda.Undertake cultural awareness training.Celebrate reconciliation and Indigenous events.Fly the Aboriginal flag and liaise with the local Indigenous community and elders. Successful Indigenous employment strategies need to start at the top level of an organisation. Copyright  2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity9-*Mentoring to improve disadvantageOne initiative that organisations may use to counter such disadvantage is the use of mentoring. The major benefits or functions of mentoring:Career functions help the mentee to ‘learn the ropes’ and so prepare him or her for advancement in an organisation. Psychological functions are the aspects of the relationship that enhance the mentee’s sense of competence and self-worth, both inside and outside the organisation, and effectiveness in a professional role.Copyright  2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity9-*Mentoring by Aboriginal peopleBy Aboriginal for Aboriginal peopleCulturally sensitiveRole modellingCounsellingAssists in organisational cultureSupportGuidanceCulturally supportiveCopyright  2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity9-*Developing an Indigenous employment strategyOrganisations can achieve better employment outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples through organisational programs and policies designed to address the issue of increasing and maintaining diversity, which can also be used to overcome labour market disadvantage. Copyright  2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity9-*Diversity strategiesDiversity strategies are based on the principles of social justice and give an organisation a competitive advantage.It is important that diversity strategies or programs contain targets for organisations to meet government targets for employment of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. For example, the NSW government target is 2 per cent.Diversity strategies, when implemented in line with the organisation’s strategic directions, can help organisations reach these targets.Copyright  2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity9-*Diversity strategiesDiversity strategies should include:a Reconciliation Statement of Commitment and/or a Reconciliation Action Plan (RAP)and an Indigenous Employment Strategy (IES).Copyright  2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity9-*Reconciliation Statement of Commitment Unique to each organisation, a Reconciliation Statement of Commitment usually acknowledges the traditional peoples associated with, and the cultural significance and history of, the region within which the organisation is based.It outlines the organisation’s commitment to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, cultures, aspirations and contributions, as well as the organisation’s continued commitment to reconciliation. Copyright  2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity9-*Reconciliation Action Plan (RAP) A Reconciliation Action Plan (RAP) outlines an organisation’s commitment to bridging the gap between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and the non- Indigenous population.It helps an organisation build positive relationships between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and non-Indigenous people. An RAP is an organisation’s contribution towards the national effort to improve Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples’ social and economic situation, including closing the 17-year life expectancy gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians.Copyright  2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity9-*Reconciliation Action Plan – RAP (cont.)The RAP program was launched by Reconciliation Australia in July 2006.Organisations are invited to work collaboratively with Reconciliation Australia to ensure that their RAP meets the specific criteria for registration on the Reconciliation Australia website. Reconciliation Australia’s RAPs are considered to be living documents that include a commitment on the organisation’s part to publicly report progress and refresh policies annually.Copyright  2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity9-*Reconciliation Action Plan – RAP (cont.)Organisations from different backgrounds have developed RAPs specific to their organisation.These organisations include:ANZ BankNational Australia Bank (NAB)QantasNRLAFLgovernment departments and small businessesCopyright  2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity9-*Indigenous Employment Strategy (IES) An Indigenous Employment Strategy (IES) is a specific statement of practical measures to attract, employ and retain Indigenous employees.It should play a part in redressing the past practices that have contributed to the unequal status of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. An IES needs to contribute to the social capital and future empowerment of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.Copyright  2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity9-*Indigenous Employment Strategy (IES) (cont.)An IES includes:a statement of the employer’s commitment to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoplesthe underpinning principles of the strategy and its alignment with the organisation’s strategic directiona target percentage for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander employment within the organisationstrategies for recruitment, selection and retention.Copyright  2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity9-*Indigenous Employment Strategy (IES) (cont.)Recruitment, selection and retention are the most important aspects of any IES. The strategy should:outline which positions are targeted and whose responsibility it is to ensure that the strategy is carried outcontain a cultural enlightenment component for non-Indigenous-Australian employeesinclude mentoring/support mechanisms.Copyright  2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity9-*Indigenous Employment Strategy (IES) (cont.)An IES also provides some special provisions to assist Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples:All selection committees for identified Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander positions will comprise an equal number of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and non-Indigenous people. There may also be special leave provisions granted that enable Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander staff to attend to cultural or family obligations.Copyright  2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity9-*ConclusionAboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are the most disadvantaged group in Australia.This legacy is now starting to be redressed but Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples still have a long, hard road ahead.If real progress is to be made in this area, organisations need to be actively involved in removing the sources of labour market disadvantage.Copyright  2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity9-*Conclusion (cont.)To improve Indigenous employment outcomes, organisations need to incorporate diversity initiatives that include embracing reconciliation. Having an IES contributes to the competitive advantage of the workplace and aids in the recruitment, selection and retention of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander employees. Copyright  2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity9-*