Bài giảng Marketing - Chapter 22: Pulling it all together: The strategic marketing process

LEARNING OBJECTIVES (LO) AFTER READING CHAPTER 22, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: Explain how marketing managers allocate their limited resources. Describe two marketing planning frameworks: Porter’s generic business strategies and synergy analysis. Explain what makes an effective marketing plan.

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.LO2Describe two marketing planning frameworks: Porter’s generic business strategies and synergy analysis.Explain what makes an effective marketing plan.LO3LEARNING OBJECTIVES (LO) AFTER READING CHAPTER 22, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO:Explain how marketing managersallocate their limited resources.LO1LO5Describe the alternatives for organizing a marketing department and the role of a product manager.LEARNING OBJECTIVES (LO) AFTER READING CHAPTER 22, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO:Use a Gantt chart to schedule a series of tasks.LO4LO6Explain how marketing ROI, metrics, and dashboards relate to evaluating marketing programs.REACHING TODAY’S ON-THE-GO CONSUMER BY BREAKING THE RULES AT “BIG G”Cereal Industry Facts of LifeDecline in RTE Cereals1 of 4 Brands SucceedsHigh New-Product RiskREACHING TODAY’S ON-THE-GO CONSUMER BY BREAKING THE RULES AT “BIG G”Conflicting Consumer Intentions/ActionsCreative Initiatives Outside CerealsSingle PortionsEat-on-the-Go ProductsHealthier EatingCooking ConvenienceREACHING TODAY’S ON-THE-GO CONSUMER BY BREAKING THE RULES AT “BIG G”Magic BrownieStrategy: Clear and FocusedExecution: Flawless OperationsKaizenMARKETING BASICS: DOING WHAT WORKS AND ALLOCATING RESOURCESFINDING AND USING WHAT REALLY WORKSCulture: Performance-OrientedStructure: Fast, Flexible, and FlatLO1MARKETING BASICS: DOING WHAT WORKS AND ALLOCATING RESOURCES USING SALES RESPONSE FUNCTIONSSales Response FunctionA Numerical Example of Resource AllocationLO1Maximizing Incremental Revenue Minus Incremental CostYear 1Year 4FIGURE 22-1 A sales response function shows the impact on sales at various levels of marketing effort on annual sales revenueMARKETING BASICS: DOING WHAT WORKS AND ALLOCATING RESOURCES USING SALES RESPONSE FUNCTIONSLO1Allocating Marketing Resources in PracticeRevenuesShare Points—Need Estimates of:Market ShareCannibalizationGross MarginFIGURE 22-2 The actions in the strategic marketing process are supported and directed by detailed reports, studies, and memosMARKETING BASICS: ALLOCATING RESOURCESUSING SALES RESPONSE FUNCTIONSLO1Resource Allocation and the Strategic Marketing ProcessOutput ReportsTHE PLANNING PHASE OF THE STRATEGIC MARKETING PROCESSTHE IMPORTANCE OF METRICS IN MARKETING PLANNINGLO1Innovation Metrics“If You Don’t Where You’re Going, Any Road Will Get You There.”Input MetricOutput MetricFIGURE 22-3 Metric ranked No. 1 by respondents from organizations using more than three innovation metricsTHE PLANNING PHASE OF THE STRATEGIC MARKETING PROCESSTHE VARIETY OF MARKETING PLANSLO1Annual Marketing PlansLong-Range Marketing PlansTHE PLANNING PHASE OF THE STRATEGIC MARKETING PROCESSMARKETING PLANNING FRAMEWORKSLO2Cost Leadership StrategyPorter’s Generic Business StrategiesDifferentiation StrategyCost Focus StrategyDifferentiation Focus StrategyFIGURE 22-4 Porter’s four generic business strategies involve combinations of competitive scope and costs vs. product differentiation Campbell’s Soup and IKEA Which of Porter’s generic business strategy does each use?LO2THE PLANNING PHASE OF THE STRATEGIC MARKETING PROCESSSYNERGY ANALYSISLO2Synergy AnalysisMarketing SynergyR&D-Manufacturing SynergyMARKETING MATTERS A Test of Your Skills: Where are the Synergies?1. Where are the marketing synergies?2. Where are the R&D-manufacturing synergies?3. What is the ideal market-product grid for a merger?LO2FIGURE 22-5 Market-product grids show alternative strategies for a lawnmower manufacturer THE PLANNING PHASE OF THE STRATEGIC MARKETING PROCESSSYNERGY ANALYSISLO2Market SpecializationMarket-Product ConcentrationProduct SpecializationSelective SpecializationFull CoverageFIGURE 22-6 The ideal merger for Great Lakes to obtain full market-product coverage THE PLANNING PHASE OF THE STRATEGIC MARKETING PROCESSMARKETING PLANNING AND STRATEGY LESSONSLO3Guidelines for an Effective Marketing PlanHave Complete and Feasible PlansSet Measurable, Achievable GoalsUse a Base of Facts and AssumptionsUse Simple, but Clear and Specific PlansTHE PLANNING PHASE OF THE STRATEGIC MARKETING PROCESSMARKETING PLANNING AND STRATEGY LESSONSLO3Make Plans Controllable and FlexibleFind the Right Person to ImplementWork Toward Concensus-BuildingGuidelines for an Effective Marketing PlanTHE PLANNING PHASE OF THE STRATEGIC MARKETING PROCESSMARKETING PLANNING AND STRATEGY LESSONSLO3Marketing Planning and Strategy ProblemsBad News Gets Filtered Out as Information Proceeds Upward to Top ManagementPlans Based on Poor AssumptionsPlanners Lost Sight of Customer NeedsToo Much Time and Effort on Collecting Data and Writing PlansLine Operating Managers Have No Ownership in Implementing PlansTHE PLANNING PHASE OF THE STRATEGIC MARKETING PROCESSMARKETING PLANNING AND STRATEGY LESSONSLO3Big G Strategies to Find SynergiesReaching New Global MarketsNew Product Ideas from Anyone, Anywhere Around the WorldTHE PLANNING PHASE OF THE STRATEGIC MARKETING PROCESSMARKETING PLANNING AND STRATEGY LESSONSLO3Balancing Value and ValuesValue-Based PlanningValue-Driven StrategiesTHE IMPLEMENTATION PHASE OF THE STRATEGIC MARKETING PROCESSIS PLANNING OR IMPLEMENTATION THE PROBLEM?LO3The Plan and StrategyThe Plan’s ImplementationBothPoorExcellentFIGURE 22-A Results of good and bad marketing planning and implementation THE IMPLEMENTATION PHASE OF THE STRATEGIC MARKETING PROCESSEMPHASIZING MARKETING IMPLEMENTATIONLO3Move Some Planning Activities From Planners to Line ManagersFind Ways to Convert New Marketing Opportunities to Completed ProjectsDelayer to Speed Up Decision Making by Building Trust and AutonomyTHE IMPLEMENTATION PHASE OF THE STRATEGIC MARKETING PROCESSIMPROVING IMPLEMENTATION OF MARKETING PROGRAMSLO3Communicate Goals and the Means to Achieve ThemProgram ChampionHave a Responsible Program Champion Willing to ActReward Successful Program ImplementationTHE IMPLEMENTATION PHASE OF THE STRATEGIC MARKETING PROCESSIMPROVING IMPLEMENTATION OF MARKETING PROGRAMSLO3“Do It, Fix It, Try It” Approach“Bias for Action”Take Action and Avoid Paralysis by AnalysisTHE IMPLEMENTATION PHASE OF THE STRATEGIC MARKETING PROCESSIMPROVING IMPLEMENTATION OF MARKETING PROGRAMSLO3Get Help—Don’t Keep Problems to Yourself Avoid the “NIH” Syndrome Foster Open Communication to Surface Problems Surface Problems ImmediatelyTHE IMPLEMENTATION PHASE OF THE STRATEGIC MARKETING PROCESSIMPROVING IMPLEMENTATION OF MARKETING PROGRAMSLO4Program SchedulesGantt Chart Schedule Precise Tasks, Responsibilities, and Deadlines Action Item ListFIGURE 22-B Tasks and time needed to complete a term project FIGURE 22-7 Gantt chart for scheduling a term project that distinguishes sequential and concurrent tasks THE IMPLEMENTATION PHASE OF THE STRATEGIC MARKETING PROCESSORGANIZING FOR MARKETINGLO5The Evolving Role of the CMOUnderstand Global Consumer SegmentsUnderstand Multichannel MarketingHas High Job TurnoverFIGURE 22-8 The organization of a business unit in a typical consumer packaged goods firm shows two product or brand groups THE IMPLEMENTATION PHASE OF THE STRATEGIC MARKETING PROCESSORGANIZING FOR MARKETINGLO5Staff PositionsLine PositionsLine vs. Staff and Divisional GroupingsCategory ManagerTHE IMPLEMENTATION PHASE OF THE STRATEGIC MARKETING PROCESSORGANIZING FOR MARKETINGLO5Functional GroupingsProduct Line GroupingsGeographical GroupingsMarket-Based GroupingsMatrix OrganizationLine vs. Staff and Divisional GroupingsRole of the Product/Brand ManagerFIGURE 22-C Entities which/whom the product or brand group works with Identifying Deviations From GoalsActual Results Fall Short of GoalsActual Results Exceed GoalsTHE IMPLEMENTATION PHASE OF THE STRATEGIC MARKETING PROCESSTHE MARKETING EVALUATION PROCESSLO6Acting on Deviations From GoalsFIGURE 22-9 The evaluation phase of the strategic marketing process ties results and actions to goals, often using marketing metrics and dashboards Marketing ROITHE IMPLEMENTATION PHASE OF THE STRATEGIC MARKETING PROCESSMARKETING ROI, METRICS, AND DASHBOARDSLO6Marketing MetricsMarketing DashboardsThe Distribution Challenge for Warm Delights MinisTHE IMPLEMENTATION PHASE OF THE STRATEGIC MARKETING PROCESSMETRICS AND DASHBOARDS AT GENERAL MILLSLO6The Findings for Warm Delights MinisThe Actions for Warm Delights MinisFIGURE 22-10 The marketing dashboard for the distribution channels for General Mills’ Warm Delights Minis (WDM) FIGURE 22-10A The marketing dashboard for General Mills’ Warm Delights Minis (WDM): Monthly unit sales by channel FIGURE 22-10B The marketing dashboard for General Mills’ Warm Delights Minis (WDM): Channel stores carrying WDM FIGURE 22-10C The marketing dashboard for General Mills’ Warm Delights Minis (WDM): Nov/Dec sales by channel FIGURE 22-10D The marketing dashboard for General Mills’ Warm Delights Minis (WDM): Average number of flavors carried GENERAL MILLS WARM DELIGHTS™: INDULGENT, DELICIOUS, AND GOOEY!VIDEO CASE 22VIDEO CASE 22WARM DELIGHTS1. What is the competitive set of desserts in which Warm Delights is located?VIDEO CASE 22WARM DELIGHTS2. (a) Who is the target market? (b) What is the point of difference on the positioning for Warm Delights? (c) What are the potential opportunities and hindrances of the target market and positioning?VIDEO CASE 22WARM DELIGHTS3. (a) What marketing research did Vivian Callaway execute? (b) What were the critical questions that she sought research and expert advice to get answers to? (c) How did this affect the product’s marketing mix price, promotion, packaging, and distribution decisions?VIDEO CASE 22WARM DELIGHTS4. (a) What initial promotional plan directed to consumers in the target market did Callaway use? (b) Why did this make sense to Callaway and her team when Warm Delights was launched?VIDEO CASE 22WARM DELIGHTS5. If you were a consultant to Vivian Callaway, what product changes would you recommend to increase sales of Warm Delights?Sales Response FunctionA sales response function relates the expense of marketing effort to the marketing results obtained.Share PointsShare points are an analysis that uses percentage points of market share as the common basis of comparison to allocate marketing resources effectively for different product lines within the same firm.Generic Business StrategyA generic business strategy is a strategy that can be adopted by any firm, regardless of the product or industry involved, to achieve a competitive advantage.Cost Leadership StrategyA cost leadership strategy is one of Porter’s generic business strategies that focuses on reducing expenses and, in turn, lowers product prices while targeting a broad array of market segments.Differentiation StrategyA differentiation strategy is one of Porter’s generic business strategies that requires products to have significant points of difference to charge a higher price while targeting a broad array of market segments.Cost Focus StrategyA cost focus strategy is one of Porter’s generic business strategies that involves controlling expenses and, in turn, lowering product prices targeted at a narrow range of market segments.Differentiation Focus StrategyA differentiation focus strategy is one of Porter’s generic business strategies that requires products to have significant points of difference to target one or only a few market segments.Synergy AnalysisSynergy analysis seeks growth opportunities by finding the optimum balance between marketing efficiencies versus R&D-manufacturing efficiencies.Program ChampionA program champion is a person who is able and willing to cut red tape and move the program forward.Action Item ListAn action item list is an aid to implementing a marketing plan, consisting of four columns: (1) the task; (2) the person responsible for completing that task; (3) the date to finish the task; and (4) what is to be delivered.Line PositionsLine positions consist of managers who have the authority and responsibility to issue orders to the people who report to them.Staff PositionsStaff positions consist of people who have the authority and responsibility to advise people in line positions but cannot issue direct orders to them.Product Line GroupingsProduct line groupings are organizational groupings in which a unit is responsible for specific product offerings.Functional GroupingsFunctional groupings are organizational groupings that represent the different departments or business activities within a firm.Geographical GroupingsGeographical groupings are organizational groupings in which sales territories are subdivided according to geographical location.Market-Based GroupingsMarket-based groupings are organizational groupings that use specific customer segments.Marketing ROIMarketing ROI is the application of modern measurement technologies to understand, quantify, and optimize marketing spending.
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