Bài giảng Operations Management - Chapter 11: Aggregate Planning and Master Scheduling

Chapter 11: Learning Objectives You should be able to: Explain what aggregate planning is and how it is useful Identify the variables decision makers have to work with in aggregate planning and some of the possible strategies they can use Describe some of the graphical and quantitative techniques planners use Prepare aggregate plans and compute their costs Describe the master scheduling process and explain its importance

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Aggregate Planning and Master SchedulingMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.You should be able to:Explain what aggregate planning is and how it is usefulIdentify the variables decision makers have to work with in aggregate planning and some of the possible strategies they can useDescribe some of the graphical and quantitative techniques planners usePrepare aggregate plans and compute their costsDescribe the master scheduling process and explain its importance11-*Student SlidesAggregate planningIntermediate-range capacity planning that typically covers a time horizon of 2 to 18 monthsUseful for organizations that experience seasonal, or other variations in demandGoal:Achieve a production plan that will effectively utilize the organization’s resources to satisfy demand11-*Student Slides11-*Student SlidesLevel capacity strategy: Maintaining a steady rate of regular-time output while meeting variations in demand by a combination of options: inventories, overtime, part-time workers, subcontracting, and back ordersChase demand strategy: Matching capacity to demand; the planned output for a period is set at the expected demand for that period.11-*Student SlidesCapacities are adjusted to match demand requirements over the planning horizonAdvantagesInvestment in inventory is lowLabor utilization in highDisadvantagesThe cost of adjusting output rates and/or workforce levels11-*Student SlidesCapacities are kept constant over the planning horizonAdvantagesStable output rates and workforceDisadvantagesGreater inventory costsIncreased overtime and idle timeResource utilizations vary over time11-*Student SlidesGeneral procedure:Determine demand for each periodDetermine capacities for each periodIdentify company or departmental policies that are pertinentDetermine unit costsDevelop alternative plans and costsSelect the plan that best satisfies objectives. Otherwise return to step 5.11-*Student SlidesMaster schedule: The result of disaggregating an aggregate planShows quantity and timing of specific end items for a scheduled horizon11-*Student SlidesBeginning inventoryForecastCustomer ordersInputsOutputsProjected inventoryMaster production scheduleUncommitted inventoryMasterProductionSchedule11-*Student Slides11-*Student Slides11-*Student SlidesWeekInventory from Previous WeekRequirementsInventory before MPS(70)MPSProjected Inventory16433313123130113130-29+70=4144130111151140-29+70=4164140117140-39+70=3183140-9+70=6111-*Student Slides11-*Student Slides11-*Student Slides