Bài giảng PMBOK - Chapter 3: Project Integration Management

importance of Project Integration Management process of project integration management Project plan development Project plan execution Integrated change control Framework for Project Integration Management two domains: core skill and project life cycle Project plan and its attribute Project plan execution Integration change control

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Chapter 3: Project Integration Managementadopted from PMI’s PMBOK 2000 and Textbook : Information Technology Project Management 1Contentsimportance of Project Integration Managementprocess of project integration managementProject plan developmentProject plan executionIntegrated change controlFramework for Project Integration Managementtwo domains: core skill and project life cycleProject plan and its attributeProject plan executionIntegration change controlChapter 32The Key to Overall Project Success: Good Project Integration ManagementProject managers must coordinate all of the other knowledge areas throughout a project’s life cycleMany new project managers have trouble looking at the “big picture” and want to focus on too many details (See opening case for a real example)Project integration management is not the same thing as software integration3Project Integration Management 3 ProcessesProject plan developmenttaking the results of other planning processes and putting them into a consistent, coherent document—the project planProject plan executioncarrying out the project planIntegrated change controlcoordinating changes across the entire projectChapter 34Figure 3-1. Project Integration Management OverviewNote: The PMBOK Guide includes similar charts for each knowledge area.5Figure 3-2. Framework for Project Integration ManagementFocus on pulling everything to-gether to reach project success!6Project Plan Development1st of 21 Planning phase processThe process of taking the results of other planning processes and organizing them into a consistent, coherent document. guides execution and control. assist the project manager in leading the project team and assessing project statusProject performance should be measured against a baseline project planChapter 37inputs to Project Plan DevelopmentOther planning outputsDocumented outputs of the planning processes in the other knowledge areasHistorical informationincludes lessons learned from past project and similar projects, and the particular customer’s history.Organizational policiesdefined in terms of the product and cover the full range of management concerns.Constraintsinclude results of previous project decision and performance, relevant lessons learned from past projects, and history with a particular customer and with similar projects.Assumptionsinclude the results of previous project decisions and performance, as well as relevant lessons learned from past projects, and the history with a particular customer and with similar projects.8Tools & techniquesProject planning methodologyDocuments the characteristics of the product or service that the project was undertaken to solve. It also documents the relationship to a business need that created the project. It is really any structured approach used to guide the project team during the development of the project plan.Stakeholder skills and knowledgepeople using the product or service may have particularly valuable insights in developing the project plan.Project management information system (PMIS)include the systems, activities, and data that permit information to flow in a project. It also includes the tools and techniques used to gather, integrate, and disseminate the outputs of all project management processes.Earned value management (EVM)9Outputs of Project Plan DevelopmentProject plana document used to coordinate all project planning documentsThe project plan documents planning assumptions, decisions, and baselines for scope, cost, and schedule. As a formal, approved, and composite document, it contains subsidiary plans from the knowledge areas. It is used to guide execution and control of the project.Supporting detailincludes the results of previous project decisions and performance, as well as relevant lessons learned from past projects, and the history with a particular customer and with similar projects. 10Attributes of Project PlansJust as projects are unique, so are project plansPlans should be dynamicPlans should be flexiblePlans should be updated as changes occurPlans should first and foremost guide project executionChapter 311Common Elements of a Project PlanIntroduction or overview of the projectDescription of how the project is organizedManagement and technical processes used on the projectWork to be done, schedule, and budget informationChapter 312Table 3-1. Sample Outline for a Software Project Management Plan (SPMP)Chapter 313Stakeholder AnalysisA stakeholder analysis documents important (often sensitive) information about stakeholders such asstakeholders’ names and organizationsroles on the projectunique facts about stakeholderslevel of influence and interest in the projectsuggestions for managing relationshipsChapter 314Project Plan Execution1st of 7 executing phase processIt is the first core process of executionProject plan execution involves managing and performing the work described in the project planThe majority of time and money is usually spent on executionThe application area or the project directly affects project execution because the products of the project are produced during executionChapter 315Inputs to Project Plan ExecutionProject planthe formal, approved document used to guide project execution and control.Supporting detailAdditional information or documents generated during development of the project plan. These details are outputs from other planning processes like technical documentation and documentation of relevant standards.Organization policiesincludes formal and informal policies, such as QC audits, continuous improvement targets, and personnel guidelines.Preventive actionanything that reduces the probability of potential consequences of project risk events. Correction actionanything that brings expected performance back in line with the project plan. They are outputs from the other knowledge areas.16Tools & techniquesGeneral management skillsinclude leadership, communication, negotiation skills, problem solving, and influencing the organization. Product skills & knowledgedefined as part of resource planning and provided by the team members.Work authorization systema method for ensuring that qualified people do work at the right time and in the proper sequenceany formal procedure for sanctioning project work to ensure completion. It can involve written or verbal authorizations to being work.17Tools & techniques (2)Status review meetingsprovide a regular exchange of information about the project with stakeholders.Project management information system (PMIS)special software to assist in managing projects, useful in collection, dissemination, and storage of information form other PM processes.Organizational procedureformal and informal procedures often useful during project execution. Some policies are a) QC audits; b) continuous-improvement targets; c) personnel guidelines.Chapter 318Outputs of Project Plan ExecutionWork results: the outcome of activities performed. Work results are fed into the performance reporting process. These are the results monitored throughout all aspects of the project.Change requests: formal requests, usually by the customer but possibly also from other team members, which expand or shrink project scope, modify costs and schedule estimates, as well as impact resources. These requests can be oral or written, direct or indirect, externally or internally initiated, and legally mandated or optional.19Integrated Change Control1st of 8 controlling phase process It covers those factors that ensure changes made to the project are beneficial. It is necessary to identify the change has actually occurred and has been requested. Three main objectives of change control:Influence the factors that create changes to ensure they are beneficialDetermine that a change has occurredManage actual changes when and as they occurChapter 320Figure 3-3. Integrated Change Control Process21Inputs to Integrated Change ControlProject plan: the formal, approved document used to guide project execution and control. It provides the baseline for measuring and controlling. It includes the schedule and budget, as well as the knowledge area subsidiary plans such as the communications plan, risk management plan, and quality plan.Performance reports:can alert the project team to issues that could cause problems in the future. Status reports describe the project’s current standards. Progress reports describe the team’s accomplishments.Change requests: These are the result of a) external events (such as new governmental regulations); b) errors or omissions in defining the project scope; c) errors or omissions in defining the project scope; d) a value-added change (such as taking advantage of new technology)22Tools & techniquesChange control systemA collection of formal, documented procedures that define how project performance will be monitored and evaluated. It also includes the steps for changing official project documents. It includes paperwork, tracking systems, processes, and the level of approvals necessary to authorize the changes.Describes who is authorized to make changes and how to make themOften includes a change control board (CCB), configuration management, and a process for communicating changesCCB is a formal group of people responsible for approving or rejecting changes on a projectProvides guidelines for preparing change requests, evaluates them, and manages the implementation of approved changesIncludes stakeholders from the entire organization23Tools & techniques (2)Configuration managementDocuments the procedures used to apply technical and administrative direction and surveillance.Ensures that the products and their descriptions are correct and completeConcentrates on the management of technology by identifying and controlling the functional and physical design characteristics of products Configuration management specialists identify and document configuration requirements, control changes, record and report changes, and audit the products to verify conformance to requirementsPerformance measuresdetermine if variances form the plan require corrective action.Additional planningrequired to generate new or revised plans in the other knowledge areas.Project management information system (PMIS)Tools and techniques to provide for the collection, dissemination, and storage of information form other PM processes.24Change Control on Information Technology ProjectsFormer view: The project team should strive to do exactly what was planned on time and within budgetProblem: Stakeholders rarely agreed up-front on the project scope, and time and cost estimates were inaccurateModern view: Project management is a process of constant communication and negotiationSolution: Changes are often beneficial, and the project team should plan for themChapter 325Suggestions for Managing Integrated Change ControlView project management as a process of constant communications and negotiationsPlan for changeEstablish a formal change control system, including a Change Control Board (CCB)Use good configuration managementDefine procedures for making timely decisions on smaller changesUse written and oral performance reports to help identify and manage changeUse project management and other software to help manage and communicate changes 26Summaryimportance of Project Integration Managementcoordination and have the big pictureprocess of project integration managementProject plan developmentProject plan executionIntegrated change controlFramework for Project Integration Managementtwo domains: Knowledge area and project life cycleKnowledge area: scope, time, cost, quality, HR, communications, risk, procurementProject life cycle: concept, development, implementation and close-outChapter 327Summary (2)Project plan and its attributeProject plan executionmanaging and performing tasks stated in project planinvolve time and moneySkills: management skills, product skill and specialized skillsTools: work authorization system, status review meeting, project management softwareIntegration change controlformer view: on time and within budget =>scope, time and cost were inaccuratemodern view: constant communications and negotiation => change are beneficial and should be plannedChange control system : a formal and document process => authorization to make timely changeConfiguration management: control, record and report change, and audit the product to verify conformance to requirement (after all the changes)Chapter 328