Bài giảng PMBOK - Chapter 4: Project Scope Management

Importance of scope management Project Scope Management Processes (Initiation, Scope planning, Scope definition, Scope verification, Scope change control) Initiation (init phase) key tools: selecting project based on financial methods (NPV, ROI and Payback analysis) Scope Planning (planning phase) Scope definition (planning phase) Scope verification (control phase) Scope change control (control phase) methods to improve

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Chapter 4: Project Scope Management adopted from PMI’s PMBOK 2000 and Textbook : Information Technology Project Management (author : Dr. Kathy Schwalbe)1ContentsImportance of scope managementProject Scope Management Processes (Initiation, Scope planning, Scope definition, Scope verification, Scope change control)Initiation (init phase)key tools: selecting project based on financial methods (NPV, ROI and Payback analysis)Scope Planning (planning phase)Scope definition (planning phase)Scope verification (control phase)Scope change control (control phase)methods to improve2Screening a project3What is Project Scope Management?Scope refers to all the work involved in creating the products of the project and the processes used to create themProject scope management includes the processes involved in defining and controlling what is or is not included in the projectThe project team and stakeholders must have the same understanding of what products will be produces as a result of a project and what processes will be used in producing themChapter 44Project Scope Management ProcessesInitiation: beginning a project or continuing to the next phaseScope planning: developing documents to provide the basis for future project decisionsScope definition: subdividing the major project deliverables into smaller, more manageable componentsScope verification: formalizing acceptance of the project scopeScope change control: controlling changes to project scopeChapter 45Project Initiation: Strategic Planning and Project Selection1st initiation phase processInitiation is the process of formally authorizing a project or that an existing project should continue on the next phase.The first step in initiating projects is to look at the big picture or strategic plan of an organizationStrategic planning involves determining long-term business objectivesIT projects should support strategic and financial business objectivesChapter 46Inputs to Project InitiationProduct descriptiondocuments the characteristics of the products or service that the project was undertaken to solve. It also documents the business need that created the project.Strategic plandescribes the origination’s mission, vision, and goals for the future. Everything in projects management supports the strategic business plan of the origination. Project selection criteriadefined in terms of the product, this covers the full range of management concerns. They are typically defined in terms of specific benefits of the project to the business.Historical informationresults of previous decisions and performance. For example: a) relevant lessons learned from past projects; b) the history with a particular customer; c) the history with similar projects.7Identifying Potential ProjectsMany organizations follow a planning process for selecting IT projectsFirst develop an IT strategic plan based on the organization’s overall strategic planThen perform a business area analysisThen define potential projectsThen select IT projects and assign resourcesChapter 48Tools & techniquesProject selection methods they are techniques, practices or procedures for selecting a project that best supports the organization’s objectives. Project selection methods generally fall into two broad categories: a) benefit measurement methods – corporative approaches, scoring models, and benefit-contribution and entomic models; b) constrained optimization methods – mathematical models using linear, dynamic, integer, and multi-objective programming algorithms.Expert judgmentSubject experts with specialized knowledge or training assess the inputs to this process. Results of this analysis are a documented opinion or recommendation.9Methods for Selecting IT ProjectsThere are usually more projects than available time and resources to implement themIt is important to follow a logical process for selecting IT projects to work onIt is often difficult to provide strong justification for many IT projects, but everyone agrees they have a high value“It is better to measure gold roughly than to count pennies precisely”Three important criteria for projects:There is a need for the projectThere are funds availableThere’s a strong will to make the project succeedChapter 410Categorizing IT ProjectsOne categorization is whether the project addresses a probleman opportunity, ora directiveAnother categorization is how long it will take to do and when it is neededAnother is the overall priority of the projectChapter 411Financial Analysis of ProjectsFinancial considerations are often an important consideration in selecting projectsThree primary methods for determining the projected financial value of projects:Net present value (NPV) analysisReturn on investment (ROI)Payback analysisChapter 412Net Present Value AnalysisNet present value (NPV) analysis a method of calculating the expected net monetary gain or loss from a project by discounting all expected future cash inflows and outflows to the present point in timeIf financial value is a key criterionprojects with a positive NPV should be considered the higher the NPV, the betterChapter 413Figure 4-2. Net Present Value ExampleExcel file14Return on InvestmentReturn on investment (ROI) is income divided by investmentROI = (total discounted benefits - total discounted costs) / discounted costsThe higher the ROI, the better Many organizations have a required rate of return or minimum acceptable rate of return on investment for projects Chapter 415Payback Analysispayback analysisis another important financial considerationPayback occurs when the cumulative discounted benefits and costs are greater than zeroPayback period is the amount of time it will take to recoup, in the form of net cash inflows, the net dollars invested in a projectMany organizations want IT projects to have a fairly short payback periodChapter 416Figure 4-3. NPV, ROI, and Payback Analysis for Project 1Excel fileChapter 417Figure 4-4. NPV, ROI, and Payback Analysis for Project 2Excel fileChapter 418Weighted Scoring ModelNo single methods is the best for all, a holistic evaluation of previous methods can be combined!A weighted scoring model is a tool that provides a systematic process for selecting projects based on many criteriaFirst identify criteria important to the project selection processThen assign weights (percentages) to each criterion so they add up to 100%Then assign scores to each criterion for each projectMultiply the scores by the weights and get the total weighted scoresThe higher the weighted score, the betterChapter 419Figure 4-5. Sample Weighted Scoring Model for Project SelectionExcel file20Project ChartersAfter deciding what project to work on, it is important to formalize projectsA project charter a document that formally recognizes the existence of a project and provides direction on the project’s objectives and managementKey project stakeholders should sign a project charter to acknowledge agreement on the need and intent of the projectChapter 421Sample Project CharterProject Title: Information Technology (IT) Upgrade ProjectProject Start Date: March 4, 200 Projected Finish Date: December 4, 2002Project Manager: Kim Nguyen, 691-2784, knguyen@abc.comProject Objectives: Upgrade hardware and software for all employees (approximately 2,000) within 9 months based on new corporate standards. See attached sheet describing the new standards. Upgrades may affect servers and midrange computers as well as network hardware and software. Budgeted $1,000,000 for hardware and software costs and $500,000 for labor costs.Approach:·       Update the IT inventory database to determine upgrade needs·       Develop detailed cost estimate for project and report to CIO·       Issue a request for quotes to obtain hardware and software·       Use internal staff as much as possible to do the planning, analysis, and installation22Table 4-2. Sample Project Charter (continued) Roles and Responsibilities:23Scope Planning2nd of 21 planning phase processScore refers to the boundaries of the project. two approaches in scope planning: Top-down approach; Bottom-up approach. In top-down approach, planning start with largest items, or most-generalized description, of the project and break them down to the finest level of detail. In bottom-up approach, planning start with the detailed tasks and roll them up to higher levels of detail Chapter 424Input to Scope PlanningProduct descriptionDocuments the characteristics of the project or service that the project will create. It is less detailed in the early phases.Project CharterThe document that formally recognizes the existence of a project. It is issued by a manager who is external to the project and at a level appropriate to the needs of the project.Constraintsfactors that limit the project management team’s optionsAssumptionfactors that, for planning purposes, will be considered to be true, real, or certain.25Tools for Scope PlanningProduct analysisinvolves developing a better understanding of the product of the project. It includes techniques such as system engineering, value engineering, value analysis, function analysis, and quality function deployment.Benefit/cost analysisestimating tangible and intangible costs and benefits or various alternatives and using financial measures to assess the relative desirability of their alternatives.Alternative identificationany technique used to general different approaches to the project (e.g. brainstorming or lateral thinking)Expert judgmentmay be provided by subject experts with specialized knowledge or training.26Output from Scope PlanningScope statementprovides a documented basis for making future project decisions and for confirming or developing common understanding of project scope. The scope statement is an agreement made between the client and project manager. Major sections of the scope statement include: a) Project justification; b) Project product; c) Project deliverables; d) Project objectives.Supporting detailsinclude all identified assumptions and constraints. The specifications define the expected performance of a deliverable.Scope Management Plandescribe how the project scope will be managed and how scope changes will be integrated into the project. It may be formal or informal. 27Scope definition3rd of 21 planning phase processAfter completing scope planning, the next step is to further define the work by breaking it into manageable piecesScope definition divides major project deliverables into manageable components. It provides a baseline and assigns responsibilities. A scope baseline is the original plan, plus or minus approved changes.Good scope definitionhelps improve the accuracy of time, cost, and resource estimatesdefines a baseline for performance measurement and project controlaids in communicating clear work responsibilitiesChapter 428Inputs to Scope definitionScope statementThe scope statement is an agreement made between the client and project manager. It is an output from Scope Planning Process.Constraintsfactors that limits other optionsAssumptionsfactors that are considered to be true, real, or certain.Other planning outputOutputs from processes in other knowledge areas should be reviewed for possible impact on project scope definition.Historic informationinformation from similar or previous projects.29Tools & techniques for Scope definitionWBS templateuse templates from previous project for a new project. Decompositionsubdividing the major project deliverables into smaller, more manageable components. 30Outputs of Scope definitionWBSA fundamental project document that has a great emphasis in project management methodology. It provides the basis for planning and management the project. It is a deliverable-oriented grouping of project elements that organizes and defines the total scope of the project. Work not contained in the WBS is outside the scope of the project.Scope statement updaterefinements of the scope statement. 31Figure 4-6a. Sample Intranet WBS Organized by Product 32Figure 4-6b. Sample Intranet WBS Organized by Phase33Table 4-3. Intranet WBS in Tabular Form1.0 Concept 1.1 Evaluate current systems 1.2 Define Requirements 1.2.1 Define user requirements 1.2.2 Define content requirements 1.2.3 Define system requirements 1.2.4 Define server owner requirements 1.3 Define specific functionality 1.4 Define risks and risk management approach 1.5 Develop project plan 1.6 Brief web development team2.0 Web Site Design3.0 Web Site Development4.0 Roll Out5.0 Support34Figure 4-7. Intranet WBS and Gantt Chart in Project 2000Project 98 file35Figure 4-8. Intranet WBS and Gantt Chart Organized by Project Management Process Groups36Approaches to Developing WBSsUsing guidelinesSome organizations, like the DOD, provide guidelines for preparing WBSsThe analogy approachIt often helps to review WBSs of similar projectsThe top-down approachStart with the largest items of the project and keep breaking them downThe bottoms-up approachStart with the detailed tasks and roll them upChapter 437Scope verification & Scope change controlIt is very difficult to create a good scope statement and WBS for a projectIt is even more difficult to verify project scope and minimize scope changesMany IT projects suffer from scope creep and poor scope verification 38Scope Verification2nd of 8 controlling phase processScope verification is the process of formalizing acceptance of the project scope by key stakeholders, especially the customer and sponsorIt requires reviewing work products and results to ensure that all product or service features and functions are complete, correct and satisfactory.Chapter 439Inputs to Scope Verification Work resultsdeliverables have been fully or partially completed, as well as what costs have been incurred or committed. They are the outcome of activities performed and are fed into the performance reporting process.Product documentationany paperwork describing the project’s products must be available for review.40Tools & techniques for Scope Verification Inspectionactivities such as measuring, examining, and testing undertaken to determine if results conform to requirements.The purpose is to identify any particular on variances, omissions, deficiencies, gaps, and errors.41Outputs from Scope Verification Formal acceptancedocumentation of approving the project of the project, or phase, needs to be prepared. Often the client or sponsor needs to sign off on formal documents as a part of wrapping up the project.42Scope Change Control3rd of 8 controlling phase processChange control procedures enable project manager to understand and manage change requests. Project manager need to control the scope of both the product and the project. The big change requests are easy to spot because they happen all at once. When there are small multiple change requests, these are known as scope creep and it can be a difficult to detect.43Inputs to Scope Change ControlWBSa scope definition tool that organizes the work and provides a basis for project estimates. Performance reportsalert the project team. Status reports describe the project’s current standing. Progress report describes the team’s accomplishment.Change requeststhe result of external events such as government regulations, error or omissions in scope definition, and value-added changes.Scope management planpart of the Project Plan. It describes how the project scope will be managed, how changes will be identified and classified, how changes will be integrated into the project, and what the required procedures are form making changes.44Tools & techniques for Scope Change ControlScope change control systemdefines the procedures by which the scope of the project may be changed. It includes the paperwork, tracking systems, and approval levels necessary for authorizing changes. (e.g. change request form)Performance measurementtechniques to assess the magnitude of any variations that occur in the performance of the project.Additional planningactivities that may be necessary to the project plan or subsidiary plan in order to adjust to changes.4546Outputs from Scope Change Control Scope changesany modifications to the authorized project scope as defined by the approved WBS. It often requires adjustments to cost, time, quality, or other project objectives.Corrective actionanything that bring the performance back in line with the project plan.Lessons learnedassessments that include the causes of variances, reasoning behind corrective actions, and other types of lessons learned as a result of scope change.47Table 4-4. Factors Causing IT Project Problems**Johnson, Jim, "CHAOS: The Dollar Drain of IT Project Failures," Application Development Trends, January 1995, www.stadishgroup.com/chaos.htmlChapter 448Suggestions for Improving User InputInsist that all projects have a sponsor from the user organizationHave users on the project teamHave regular meetingsDeliver something to project users and sponsor on a regular basisCo-locate users with the developers49Suggestions for Reducing Incomplete and Changing RequirementsDevelop and follow a requirements management processEmploy techniques such as prototyping, use case modeling, and Joint Application Design to thoroughly understand user requirementsPut all requirements in writing and currentCreate a requirements management databaseProvide adequate testingUse a process for reviewing requested changes from a systems perspectiveEmphasize completion datesChapter 450SummaryImportance of scope managementProject Scope Management ProcessesInitiationScope planningScope definitionScope verificationScope change controlInitiation: selecting projectneeds, category, financial (NPV, ROI and Payback analysis) and weight scoreChapter 451Summary (2)Scope planningCharter to define objectivekey project stakeholders should agree and sign the charterScope definitionScope statement, WBS is a tool to define scopeScope verification and change controlvery difficult, common problem in ITscope creep and change of user requirementmethods to improve: prototyping, case modeling, put requirement in writing, provide adequate testing, incorporate change request review, emphasis on completion datesChapter 452