Bài giảng PMBOK - Chapter 7: Project Quality Management

Importance of Project Quality Management Project Quality Management Processes Quality planning, Quality assurance, Quality control Quality Model: Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award (MBNQA), CMM and ISO 9000 Software test Methods to improve IT Project Quality leadership cost of quality organizational and workplace factors maturity models

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Chapter 7: Project Quality Management adopted from PMI’s PMBOK 2000 and Textbook : Information Technology Project Management (author : Dr. Kathy Schwalbe)1ContentsImportance of Project Quality Management Project Quality Management ProcessesQuality planning, Quality assurance, Quality controlQuality Model: Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award (MBNQA), CMM and ISO 9000Software testMethods to improve IT Project Qualityleadershipcost of qualityorganizational and workplace factorsmaturity models2Quality of Information Technology ProjectsMany people joke about the poor quality of IT products (MS window’s joke!!)People seem to accept systems being down occasionally or needing to reboot their PCsBut quality is very important in many IT projectsSoftware quality is the key development in modern IT industry. MicroSoft has spend 25% of the R&D in software reliability.Chapter 73What Is Project Quality Management?The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) defines quality as the totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needsOther experts define quality based onconformance to requirements: meeting written specificationsfitness for use: ensuring a product can be used as it was intendedChapter 74Project Quality Management ProcessesProject quality management includes those processes required to ensure that the project satisfies the needs for which it was undertaken. There are 3 processes in Project quality Management:Quality planning planning phaseQuality assurance executing phaseQuality control control phase Compare to Juran’s quality trilogy: Quality plan, Control control and Quality improvementChapter 75Modern Quality ManagementModern quality managementrequires customer satisfactionprefers prevention to inspectionrecognizes management responsibility for qualityNoteworthy quality experts include Deming, Juran, Crosby, Ishikawa, Taguchi, and FeigenbaumChapter 76Quality ExpertsDeming was famous for his work in rebuilding Japan and his 14 pointsJuran wrote the Quality Control Handbook and 10 steps to quality improvementCrosby wrote Quality is Free and suggested that organizations strive for zero defectsIshikawa developed the concept of quality circles and using fishbone diagramsTaguchi developed methods for optimizing the process of engineering experimentationFeigenbaum developed the concept of total quality controlChapter 77Quality Planning11th of 21 of planning phase processIt is important to design in quality and communicate important factors that directly contribute to meeting the customer’s requirementsknow what customer want is the key in qualitybut it is quite difficult to get this informationDesign of experiments helps identify which variable have the most influence on the overall outcome of a processMany scope aspects of IT projects affect quality like functionality, features, system outputs, performance, reliability, and maintainabilityChapter 78Inputs to Quality Planning Quality policyDefined by the ISO as the “overall intentions and direction of an organization with regard to quality as formally expressed by top management.” The performing organization’s quality policy can serve as the policy for the project. Scope statementprovides a documented basis for making future project decisions and for confirming or developing common understanding of project scope among stakeholders.The scope statement describes major product deliverables and objectives that define the project.9Inputs to Quality Planning (2)Project descriptiondocuments the characteristics of the product or service that the project was undertaken to create. It details various technical issues or concerns that may impact Quality Planning.Standards and regulationsInputs from authorities outside the performing organization may impact Quality Planning.Other process outputsOutputs from the other PM knowledge areas may impact Quality Planning.10Tools & techniquesBenefit/cost analysisinvolves estimating tangible and intangible benefits and costs of meeting quality requirements and then using financial measures to assess the relative desirability of the identified alternatives.Benchmarkingcompares actual or planned project practices to other projects to generate ideas for improvement and to provide a standard against which to measure performance.Flow-chartinginvolves creating any diagram detailing how elements of a system relate to one another. Flow-charting techniques commonly used in quality management includes: a) cause-and-effect diagrams; b) process flow charts.11Tools & techniques (2)Design of experimentsAn analytical technique that helps identify with variables have the most influence on the overall outcome and helps determine an optimal solution from a relatively limited number of cases. Cost of qualityThe financial cost incurred to ensure quality. These are associated preventing, detecting, and correcting defects. Cost of quality includes (known as PAF cost)preventive costsappraisal costsfailure costs (internal and external)12Outputs from Quality Planning Quality management planPart of the project plan. QMP describes how the PM team implements the quality policy. For the project, it covers a) quality control; b) quality assurance; c) quality improvement.Operational definitionsAlso called metrics. They describe the specifics of what something is (such as work procedure or operation) and how the Quality Control process measures it. For example, convert a general objective of “increase success rate” to “increase success rate by 15% in 2 months” to make it specific.Checklistsverify required steps have been performed or followed. Inputs to other processesprovides the feedback loops to other processes to determine if Quality Planning can identify a need for further activity in anther knowledge area.13Quality Assurance2nd of 7 of executing phase processQuality assurance includes all the activities related to satisfying the relevant quality standards for a projectAnother goal of quality assurance is continuous quality improvementBenchmarking can be used to generate ideas for quality improvementsQuality audits help identify lessons learned that can improve performance on current or future projectsChapter 714Inputs to Quality AssuranceQuality management planPart of the project plan. QMP describes how the PM team implements the quality policy. For the project, it covers a) quality control; b) quality assurance; c) quality improvement.Results of quality control measurementsrecords of quality testing and measurements, presented in a format useful for comparison and analysisOperational definitions (also called metrics)describe an element and how the element is measured by the Quality Control process.15Tools & techniquesQuality planning tools and techniquesincludes benefit/cost analysis, benchmarking, flow-charting, and Design of Experiments.Quality auditsA structured review of other QM activities to identify the lessons learned that can improve the performance of this project and other projects in the organization.Such audits are an independent review of quality management activities to a performance standard.16Outputs from Quality AssuranceQuality improvementsActions that increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the project and provide added benefits to stakeholders. Implementing them usually involves preparing change requests or taking corrective action in accord with procedures for overall change control. 17Quality Control6th of 8 controlling phase processdetermine the correctiveness of the work resultsinvolves monitoring specific project results to determine if they comply with relevant quality standards identify ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory performanceThe main outputs of quality control process areacceptance decisionsreworkprocess adjustmentsSome tools and techniques includepareto analysisstatistical samplingquality control chartstestingChapter 718Inputs to Quality ControlWork resultsThe results of activities performed to accomplish the project.Quality management planPart of the project plan. QMP describes how the PM team implements the quality policy. For the project, it covers a) quality control; b) quality assurance; c) quality improvement.Operational definitionsdescribe an element and how the element is measured by the Quality Control process. Checklistsused to verify that a set of required steps has been performed.19Tools & techniquesInspectionactivities such as measuring, examining, and testing undertaken to determine if results conform to requirements. It is also reference to reviews, product reviews, audits, and walk-through.Control chartsgraphically display the results of a process. It helps to verify the process is statistically in controlPareto diagramshistograms, ordered by frequency of occurrence, that show how many results were generated by type or category of identified cause. The ranking of categories can be used to guide corrective action.20Tools & techniques (2)Statistical samplingchose part of a population of interest for inspection. Appropriate sampling can often reduce the cost of quality control.Flow-chartingA graphical method of analysis that helps determine how and where quality problems occur. It can help to develop approaches to resolving the problems.Trend analysisuse mathematical techniques to forecast future outcomes based on historical results. technical performance can be monitor to determine how many defects or errors have identified and corrected, it is also possible to monitor cost & schedule performance.21Outputs to to Quality ControlReworkany action taken to bring a defective or NC item into compliance with requiredAcceptance decisionsthe results of inspecting items delivered.Completed checklistsThese documents are part of the project.22Outputs to to Quality Control (2)Quality improvementsoutputs form the related process of quality assurance (QA). They represent actions intended to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the project. They provide added benefits to stakeholders. Implementing quality improvements require preparation of change requires or taking corrective actions.Any improvements are managed according to procedures for Overall Change Control.Process adjustmentsImmediate corrective or preventive action as a result of Quality Control measurements.23Testing in softwareMany IT professionals think of testing as a stage that comes near the end of IT product developmentTesting should be done during almost every phase of the IT product development life cycleChapter 724Types of TestsA unit test is done to test each individual component (often a program) to ensure it is as defect free as possibleIntegration testing occurs between unit and system testing to test functionally grouped componentsSystem testing tests the entire system as one entityUser acceptance testing is an independent test performed by the end user prior to accepting the delivered systemChapter 725Improving Information Technology Project QualitySeveral suggestions for improving quality for IT projects includeLeadership that promotes qualityUnderstanding the cost of qualityFocusing on organizational influences and workplace factors that affect qualityFollowing maturity models (CMM) to improve qualityChapter 726Maturity ModelsMaturity models are frameworks for helping organization improve their processes and systemsSoftware Quality Function Deployment Model focuses on defining user requirements and planning software projectsThe Software Engineering Institute’s Capability Maturity Model provides a generic path to process improvement for software developmentSeveral groups are working on project management maturity modelsChapter 727Project Management Maturity Model1. Ad-Hoc: The project management process is described as disorganized, and occasionally even chaotic. The organization has not defined systems and processes, and project success depends on individual effort. There are chronic cost and schedule problems.2. Abbreviated: There are some project management processes and systems in place to track cost, schedule, and scope. Project success is largely unpredictable and cost and schedule problems are common.3. Organized: There are standardized, documented project management processes and systems that are integrated into the rest of the organization. Project success is more predictable, and cost and schedule performance is improved.4. Managed: Management collects and uses detailed measures of the effectiveness of project management. Project success is more uniform, and cost and schedule performance conforms to plan.5. Adaptive: Feedback from the project management process and from piloting innovative ideas and technologies enables continuous improvement. Project success is the norm, and cost and schedule performance is continuously improving.Chapter 728SummaryImportance of Project Quality Management Project Quality Management ProcessesQuality planning, Quality assurance, Quality controlCompare to Juran’s quality trilogy: Quality plan, Control control and Quality improvementQuality Model: Malcolm Baldrige Award, CMM and ISO 9000Quality Planning: identify customer’s requirements and define critical success factorsQuality Assurance: continuous quality improvement, Benchmarking and Quality auditsChapter 729Summary (2)Quality control: tools and techniques => Pareto analysis, statistical sampling, quality control charts and testingSoftware test is very key factors: unit test, Integration testing, System testing, User acceptance testingways to improve IT Project Qualityleadershipcost of qualityorganizational and workplace factorsmaturity modelsChapter 730