Chapter 36: International Financial Policy

Chapter Goals Summarize the balance of payments accounts and explain the relationship between the current account and the financial and capital account Explain how exchange rates are determined and how government can influence them Discuss the problem of determining the appropriate exchange rate Differentiate various exchange rate regimes and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each

pptx17 trang | Chia sẻ: thanhlam12 | Ngày: 12/02/2019 | Lượt xem: 10 | Lượt tải: 0download
Bạn đang xem nội dung tài liệu Chapter 36: International Financial Policy, để tải tài liệu về máy bạn click vào nút DOWNLOAD ở trên
A foreign exchange dealer’s office during a busy spell is the nearest thing to Bedlam I have struck. ―Harold WincottInternational Financial PolicyCopyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.McGraw-Hill/IrwinChapter GoalsSummarize the balance of payments accounts and explain the relationship between the current account and the financial and capital accountExplain how exchange rates are determined and how government can influence themDiscuss the problem of determining the appropriate exchange rateDifferentiate various exchange rate regimes and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of eachThe Balance of PaymentsBalance of payments is a country’s record of all transactions between its residents and the residents of all foreign nationsThese include a country’s buying and selling of goods and services (imports and exports) and interest and profit payments from previous investments, together with all the capital inflows and outflowsThese accounts record all payments made by foreigners to U.S. citizens and all payments made by U.S. citizens to foreigners in those yearsThe Current AccountThe current account (lines 1–14) is the part of the balance of payments account in which all short-term flows of payments are listed The balance of merchandise trade is the difference between the value of goods exported and the value of goods importedThe balance of trade is the difference between the value of goods and services exported and importedThe Financial and Capital AccountThe financial and capital account (lines 15–25) is the part of the balance of payments account in which all long-term flows of payments are listed The capital account includes debt forgiveness, migrant’s transfers, and transfers related to the sale of fixed assetsThe financial account includes trade in assets such as business firms, bonds, stocks, and ownership right to real estateOfficial reserves are government holdings of foreign currenciesExchange Rate DeterminationPrice of yuan (in $)YuanSupplyDemandQDQS$0.20In the supply of and demand for yuan, Price is measured in $ Quantity is in yuanIf the supply of yuan increases, the equilibrium price of the yuan falls to $0.16 Supply$0.16Fundamental Forces and Exchange RatesThe fundamental forces affecting exchange rates are changes in:A country’s incomeA country’s pricesThe interest rate in a countryA country’s trade policyExchange Rate DynamicsTo avoid the problems caused by fluctuating exchange rates, governments sometimes intervene to fix exchange rates by buying and selling its currencyIf government buys its currency, it can increase its valueIf government sells its currency, its value decreasesCurrency StabilizationA more viable long-run exchange rate policy is currency stabilization, which is the buying and selling of a currency by the government to offset temporary fluctuations in supply and demand for currenciesThe government is not trying to change the long-run equilibrium, but is trying to keep the exchange rate at that long-run equilibriumStrategic currency stabilization is the process of buying and selling at strategic moments to affect the expectations of traders, and hence affect their supply and demandPurchasing Power Parity and Real Exchange RatesPurchasing power parity (PPP) is a method of calculating exchange rates that values currencies at rates such that each currency will buy an equal basket of goodsAccording to PPP, if a basket of goods costs $7 in the U.S. and ¥1000 in Japan, the exchange rate should be $1 = 1000/7 = ¥143 Purchasing power parity exchange rates may or may not be appropriate long-run exchange ratesReal Exchange RatesA real exchange rate is an exchange rate adjusted for differential changes in the price level.A nominal exchange rate is the actual exchange rate used when currencies are exchanged%Δ real exchange rate = %Δ nominal exchange rate + (domestic – foreign inflation)Alternative Exchange Rate SystemsThree exchange rate regimes are:Fixed exchange rate where the government chooses an exchange rate and offers to buy and sell currencies at that rateFlexible exchange rate where the determination of exchange rates is left totally up to the marketPartially flexible exchange rate where the government sometimes buys or sells currencies to influence the exchange rate, while at other times letting private market forces operateAdvantages and Disadvantages of Fixed Exchange Rate SystemsAdvantagesThey provide international monetary stabilityThey force governments to make adjustments to meet international problemsDisadvantagesIf they become unfixed, they create monetary instabilityThey force governments to make adjustments to meet international problemsAdvantages and Disadvantages of Flexible Exchange Rate SystemsAdvantagesThey provide for orderly incremental adjustment of exchange ratesThey allow government to be flexible in conducting monetary and fiscal policyDisadvantagesThey allow speculation to cause large jumps in exchange ratesThey allow government to be flexible in conducting monetary and fiscal policyAdvantages and Disadvantages of Partially Flexible Exchange Rate SystemsPartially flexible exchange rate regimes combine the advantages of both fixed and flexible exchange ratesIf policy makers believe there is a fundamental misalignment in a country’s exchange rate, they allow market forces to determine itIf they believe the currency’s value is falling because of speculation, they step in and fix the exchange rateChapter Summary The balance of payments is made up of the current account and the financial and capital accountExchange rates in perfectly flexible exchange rate system are determined by the supply of and demand for a currencyA country can stabilize or fix its exchange rate by either directly buying and selling its own currency or adjusting its monetary and fiscal policy to achieve its exchange rate goalChapter Summary Expansionary monetary policy, through its effect on interest rates, income, and the price level, tends to lower a country’s exchange rateFiscal policy has an ambiguous effect on a country’s exchange rateFlexible exchange rates allow exchange rates to make incremental changes, but are also subject to large jumps in value as a result of speculationA common currency has advantages and disadvantages
Tài liệu liên quan