Chapter 4 Introduction to Qualitative Research

Effective in capturing complexity of communication phenomena Sensitive to social construction of meaning Emphasizes communication environment of interactants

ppt17 trang | Chia sẻ: thanhlam12 | Ngày: 04/01/2019 | Lượt xem: 22 | Lượt tải: 0download
Bạn đang xem nội dung tài liệu Chapter 4 Introduction to Qualitative Research, để tải tài liệu về máy bạn click vào nút DOWNLOAD ở trên
Chapter 4 Introduction to Qualitative ResearchEffective in capturing complexity of communication phenomenaSensitive to social construction of meaningEmphasizes communication environment of interactants1Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.What is Qualitative Research?Preserves the form and content of interaction Contextually boundDiscourse is the data Analyzed for its qualities – empirical, inductive, and interpretiveAims for subjectivityAllows interactants’ voices to be heard2Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Mutual Simultaneous ShapingThe here and nowEverything influences everything elseEmphasis on process and the holistic frame of interactionPlausible explanations built on what is observed3Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Analytic InductionFrom the specific to the generalExplanations and theories emerge from the dataPropositions formulated continuously throughout the data collection and data analysis process4Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Model for Qualitative ResearchInterdependent stagesRevise the design after considering impact of each componentTop triangle reflects design of the projectBottom triangle reflects activities in the field5Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Conceptualizing Research Questions for Qualitative ResearchBased on previous literatureBroadly statedNondirectionalGives researcher latitude in following interesting pathsSpecific to the interaction context6Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Assessing Research QuestionsDoes the question ask how or what?Is the question nondirectional?Does it reference the research site?7Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Assessing Research QuestionsDoes the question:Focus on a specific type of interaction?Discover how meaning is developed/shared?Reveal naturally occurring communication not suitable for study in an experiment?Reveal unanticipated phenomena/influences?Reveal process that occur over time?Explore the influences of the context?8Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.What Counts as Data in Qualitative Research?Anything that can be observed or capturedInterpreting meaningResearcher constructionSubjective valuingContingent accuracy Level of evidenceMicrolevel, midlevel, macrolevel9Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Making the Case for Qualitative ResearchAdvantagesDocuments the unseenProvides information about those who cannot or will not speak for themselvesSupplements information from quantitative studiesLimitationsCommunication environment must be accessible Interactants may change their behavior Observations filtered through the researcherTime consuming10Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Issues of Reliability and ValidityFocus on the reliability and validity of the techniques or processes used to collect and analyze dataValidity achieved when report accurately reflects communication observedValidity best assessed by those observed11Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Threats to Reliability and Validity in Qualitative ResearchInaccuracy or incompleteness of dataProblems of interpretation – yours/theirs?Similarity/difference in treatment of dataData that does not fit cannot be dismissedSelection biasReactivity bias12Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Comparing Quantitative and Qualitative ResearchOne methodology is not inherently better than the otherEach has advantages and limitationsMethod should be selected because it helps the researcher answer hypotheses and research questions13Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Key Differences QuantitativeUses numbersParticipants randomly selectedRemoves some level of contextualityRelies on formal logicQualitativeUses detailed descriptionsParticipants selected purposelyDeeply contextualizedInterpretive frame14Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Key SimilaritiesBoth quantitative and qualitative methodsRely on empirical evidenceProvide useful information for describing, understanding, and explaining human communication behaviorNeeded to develop complete picture of communication15Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Which Method Do You Choose?Choose the method that answers, What do I want to know?Which method will increase the validity, reliability, and generalizability of the data?Which method will maximize the amount of useful data generated to answer the question posed?16Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.TriangulationUse of several methods or data to validate outcomesData triangulationInvestigator triangulationTheory triangulationMethodological triangulationInterdisciplinary triangulation17Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.