Kế toán, kiểm toán - Chapter 8: Short - Term decision making techniques

Explain the terms incremental costs and incremental benefits. Describe situations where incremental analysis may be used to assist management. Distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information used in decision making.

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Chapter 8 Short-term decision making techniques1 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Accounting for Business – A non-accountant’s guide 2/e by Objectives Explain the terms incremental costs and incremental benefits.Describe situations where incremental analysis may be used to assist management.Distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information used in decision making.2 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Accounting for Business – A non-accountant’s guide 2/e by Objectives (continued)Apply incremental analysis to two (2) of the following situations:make or buy a componentaccept a special orderadd a new productclose a departmentprocess a product further, or sell the product as is.3 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Accounting for Business – A non-accountant’s guide 2/e by Objectives (continued)Explain how costs and profits respond to changes in sales volume.Use a cost-volume-profit analysis as a tool for management.Define contribution margin.Calculate the contribution margin per unit and the contribution margin as a ratio.4 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Accounting for Business – A non-accountant’s guide 2/e by Objectives (continued)Calculate a break-even point by use of a formula and by use of a graph.Calculate the sales required to earn a desired level of profit (in dollars and units).Apply a cost-volume-profit analysis to practical situations.5 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Accounting for Business – A non-accountant’s guide 2/e by Incremental benefits and incremental costs To assist decision makers by providing information??Incremental benefitsthe difference between revenues of different alternatives.Incremental coststhe difference between costs of the alternatives6 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Accounting for Business – A non-accountant’s guide 2/e by Incremental benefits and incremental costs (continued)Managers will aim to choose the alternativewhich derives the greatest benefit.highest revenuelowest cost.7 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Accounting for Business – A non-accountant’s guide 2/e by Incremental analysisIncremental analysisMaking an informed decision when faced with alternatives.Examples:to make or buy a componentto accept a special orderto add a new product lineto close a departmentto process a product further, or sell the product as is.8 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Accounting for Business – A non-accountant’s guide 2/e by Relevant and irrelevant informationManagement needs information to make decisions, the more information the better.The accountant needs to identify all relevant information to assist decision makers.Relevant data is data that will alter the result of the decision made.9 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Accounting for Business – A non-accountant’s guide 2/e by Decision-making situationsMaking or buying a componentWether to make or buy a component is a very common decision for management in a manufacturing business.10 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Accounting for Business – A non-accountant’s guide 2/e by Decision-making situations (continued)11 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Accounting for Business – A non-accountant’s guide 2/e by Decision-making situations (continued)Special ordersManagement also needs to choose whether to accept a special order with prices lower than normal.12 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Accounting for Business – A non-accountant’s guide 2/e by Decision-making situations (continued)13 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Accounting for Business – A non-accountant’s guide 2/e by Decision-making situations (continued)Adding a new productIf a manufacturing firm had idle production time management may need to decide about adding a new product to reduce idle time.14 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Accounting for Business – A non-accountant’s guide 2/e by Decision-making situations (continued)Closing a departmentIf a department is making a loss, management may need to choose whether to close the department or allow it to run at a loss.15 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Accounting for Business – A non-accountant’s guide 2/e by Decision-making situations (continued)16 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Accounting for Business – A non-accountant’s guide 2/e by Changes in sales volumeCost-volume-profit-analysis (CVP) shows the effects changes in the volume of production will have on cost and profits.Fixed costs remain fixed no matter what the level of production.Variable costs vary in direct proportion to production: as output increases the total variable costs will increase.17 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Accounting for Business – A non-accountant’s guide 2/e by Cost-volume-profit analysis (CVP)CVP can be used in a number of situations;to determine the effect changes in volume of production will have on profitsto calculate the break-even point (see slides 8:22 - 8:26 )18 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Accounting for Business – A non-accountant’s guide 2/e by Contribution marginis the amount remaining after total variable costs have been deducted from sales revenueis required before management can use CVP analysis as a tool for decision making.19 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Accounting for Business – A non-accountant’s guide 2/e by Contribution margin calculation The contribution margin can be calculated in two ways:Contribution margin per unitby subtracting the unit variable cost from the unit selling price.Contribution margin ratioby expressing the contribution margin as a percentage of sales.20 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Accounting for Business – A non-accountant’s guide 2/e by Example 621 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Accounting for Business – A non-accountant’s guide 2/e by Break-even pointTotal revenue equals total costs.Allows managers to know how many units need to be sold to break even.Any sales over this will be profit.It can be calculated by the formula or graph method. 22 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Accounting for Business – A non-accountant’s guide 2/e by Break-even point: Formula methodThere are two formulae: Total fixed costs = Units required to break evencontribution margin per unit Total fixed costs = Sales value to break even contribution margin ratio23 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Accounting for Business – A non-accountant’s guide 2/e by Break-even point: Graph method Gives a visual presentation of the relationship between costs and revenues.24 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Accounting for Business – A non-accountant’s guide 2/e by Example (continued)25 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Accounting for Business – A non-accountant’s guide 2/e by Break-even point (continued)26 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Accounting for Business – A non-accountant’s guide 2/e by Desired profitDesired profitcertain level of profitCVP analysis allows managers to determine the level of sales required to determine profit.Formula: Total fixed costs + Desired profit = Required units Contribution margin per unit27 2004 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Accounting for Business – A non-accountant’s guide 2/e by