Luận văn Motivation in Learning English Speaking of the Second Year Tourism-Major Students at Tourism and Foreign Language Department, Sao Do College of Industry

We are living in the global world in which English language has rapidly become an international language. To meet this requirement, English has been taught almost everywhere in Vietnam, especially in schools, colleges, universities, English is a compulsory subject.

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Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 Rationale for the study We are living in the global world in which English language has rapidly become an international language. To meet this requirement, English has been taught almost everywhere in Vietnam, especially in schools, colleges, universities, English is a compulsory subject. However, how to speak English well is a problem for many learners of English, especially for the students of colleges and universities. Despite the fact that most of the students have been learning English since they were at secondary or high school, they are deficient in English speaking. As a teacher of Tourism & Foreign language Department, Sao Do College of Industry SCI, HaiDuong, from our observation and our own teaching experience, we see that during the speaking lesson classroom interaction is restricted. Only some students get involved in the activities conducted by the teacher while others keep silence or do other things. Thus, one of the challenges to the teacher is to find out the answer to the question “Why don’t many students of English get involved actively in speaking lesson?” To find the answer to this question it is necessary to investigate what motivates and de-motivates students in English learning in general and in speaking in particular. Many teachers and researchers now believe that motivation is one of the most important factors that determine the rate and success of L2 attainment: it provides the primary impetus to initiate learning the L2 and later the driving force to sustain the long and often tedious learning process. Without sufficient motivation, even individuals with the most remarkable abilities cannot accomplish long-term goals, and there are no appropriate curricula and good teaching to ensure student achievement. For the mentioned reasons, we would like to conduct a study on “Motivation in Learning English Speaking of the Second Year Tourism-Major Students at Tourism and Foreign Language Department, Sao Do College of Industry”. The study is to investigate what motivates and de-motivates students in English speaking learning. We do hope that this study will help the teacher of speaking in some ways to find appropriate methods to motivate their students. 1.2 Aims of the study The study aims at investigating the motivation in English speaking learning among the second year tourism-major students at Tourism and Foreign Language Faculty, Sao Do Industrial College. The four main purposes of the study are summarized below: 1. To examine kinds of motivation possessed by the second year tourism major students at Tourism and Foreign Department, Sao Do College of Industry. 2. To examine methods and techniques used by teachers of speaking to motivate their learners in speaking activities. 3. To investigate factors de-motivating students in English speaking learning? 4. To suggest motivational strategies and techniques, which can be applied to stimulate learners in teaching speaking skill. 1.3 Scope and significance of the study: There are many factors affecting the success or failure of learning a foreign language, in which motivation is one of the key factors. The focus of this study is on motivation as a separate factor in English speaking learning. The results of the study will be applied to improve the speaking skills of second tourism major students of Tourism & Foreign Language Department, SCI. It can not be said that the results are general to all students in Vietnam. 1.4 Design of the study The study is designed with 3 chapters. Chapter one presents the rationale for study, aims of the study, research questions as well as the scope of the study. Chapter two displays the background of motivation and speaking teaching. In the chapter, the main approaches to motivation and de-motivation in foreign language teaching are discussed. The main theories of foreign language speaking teaching are also presented in the chapter. Chapter three presents the methodology performed in the study. The chapter also deals with documentation, data analysis. The analysis and discussion on the data is based on the survey questionnaire, interview and classroom observation. Chapter four summarizes the findings, implication, recommendations and future directions for future research are also provided in the last chapter. Chapter 2: Literature review This chapter is concerned with the conceptions of motivation, motivation in foreign language learning, and the theoretical backgrounds of speaking skills. 2.1 Theoretical background of motivation 2.1.1 Conceptions of motivation Many researches have been undertaken and there is much in the research literature regarding the definition of motivation. All the motivation theories in general want to explain the fundamental question of why humans behave as they do, and therefore we cannot assume any simple and straightforward answer. Motivation is described as the impetus to create and sustain intentions and goal seeking acts (Ames & Ames, 1989). Burden, (1997:119) assumed that “from a cognitive perspective, motivation is concerned with such issues as why people decide to act in certain ways and what factors influence the choice they make. It also involves decisions as to the amount of effect people are prepared to expand in attempting to achieve their goals. The role of the teacher thus becomes one of helping and enabling learners to make suitable decisions” Dornei (2001:613) defined motivation as “a general ways of referring to the antecedents (i.e. the causes and the origins”. He also stated that “motivation explains why people decide to do something, how hard they are going to pursue it and how long they are willing to sustain the activities” (2001:7). The author mentioned two dimensions of human behavior: direction and magnitude (intensity) which motivation concerns. Motivation, “the process whereby goal-directed activity is instigated and sustained” (Pintrich& Schunk, 2002). From the above, it can be deduced that motivation is a psychological trait which leads people to achieve a goal. Motivation is what drives you to “behave” in a certain way or to take a particular action. Simply, it can be understood that motivation is your “WHY”. 2.1.2 Motivation in foreign language learning In recent years, motivation has become a familiar term in second language learning. Motivation in foreign language learning has been defined in different ways. According to Dornyei, 1988, motivation refers to the efforts learners make to learn a foreign language. Motivation is one of the keys that influence the rate and success of language learning. Park (2002:2) believes that motivation is shaped as “...sets of belief about language learning, the target culture, their culture, the teacher, the learning task, ect.” Holt (2001:1), referring to Cookes and Schmidt (1991), defines motivation as “...the learner’s orientation with regard to the goal of learning a second language”. Motivation in this context can be understood as one relating to attitude and vice versa with both having an influence on learning and acquisition. Gardner (1985) as as cited in Dornyei, (2001), assumed that motivation involved desire to learn a language, intensity of effort to achieve this, and attitudes toward learning the language. According to the framework by Dornyei (1994), motivation consists of 3 main levels which are language level, learner level and learning situation level. Language level refers to integrative motivational subsystem and instrumental motivational subsystem. Learner level depends on need for achievement, self-confidence which is language use anxiety, perceived L2 competence, casual attributions and self-efficacy Learning situation level refers to course specific motivational components, teacher specific motivational components and group specific motivational components Below is Dornyei’s (1994) framework of L2 motivation. Table 1: Dornyei’s (1994) framework of L2 motivation (Adapted from Dornyei, 2001) Language level Integrative motivational subsystem Instrumental motivational subsystem Learner level Need for achievement Self-confidence + Language use anxiety + Perceived L2 competence + Casual attributions + Self-efficacy Learning situation level Course specific motivational components Interest (in the course) Relevant (of the course to one’s needs) Expectancy (of success) Satisfaction (one has in the outcome) Teacher specific motivational components Affiliative motive Authority type Direct socialization of student motivation - Modeling - Task presentation - Feedback Group specific motivational components Goal-orientedness Norm and reward system Group cohesion Classroom goal structure Another comprehensive attempt to summarize the motivational components that are relevant to L2 instruction has been made by Marion and Bob Burden (1997) as a part of a larger overview of psychology for language teachers. The motivational components summarized consist of internal factors and external factors. The components of these factors are displayed in the framework below. Table 2: William and Burden’s (1997) framework of L2 motivation (Adapted from Dornyei, 2001) Internal factors External factors Intrinsic interest of activity - arousal of curiosity - optimal degree of challenge Significant others: - parents - teachers - peers Perceived value of activity - Personal relevance - anticipated value of outcome - intrinsic value attributed to the activity The nature of interaction with significant others - mediated learning experiences - the nature and amount of feedback - rewards - the nature and amount of appropriate praise - punishments, sanctions Sense of agency - locus of causality - locus of control RE process and outcomes - ability to set appropriate goals The learning environment - comfort - resources - time of the day, week, year - size of class, school - class and school ethos Mastery - feelings of competence - awareness of developing skills and mastery in a chosen area - self efficacy The broader context - wider family networks - the local education system - conflicting interests - cultural norms - societal expectations and attitudes Self-concept - realistic awareness of personal strengths and weaknesses in skills required - personal definitions and judgments of success and failure - self-worth concern -learned helplessness Attitudes - to language learning in general - to the target language - to the target community and culture Other affective states - confidence - anxiety, fear Developmental age and stage Gender In conclusion, motivation is one variable, which, combined with other factors, influences a learner’s success. 2.1.3 Types of motivation in foreign language learning Motivation can be classified in different ways. In some studies, motivation is categorized into two types: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation Tracing the word “intrinsic” down to its roots, it means “innate” or “within”, thus intrinsic motivation originates in the individual itself. Concerning learning it can be said that the drive or stimulation to learn comes from within the students, hence, the teacher or instructor does not have to ‘manipulate’ the student in any way in order to make him learn. It is an inner desire of the student to fulfill a positive learning outcome. Intrinsic motivation itself is goal related, therefore, it is independent of any kind of external value. Extrinsic motivation can be regarded as the opposite of intrinsic motivation. The goal connected with intrinsic motivation is a positive learning effect that lasts a long time, but the goal of an extrinsic motivated student is completely different. “When individuals are extrinsically motivated, they hold some desired outcome as a goal (e.g., getting a good grade or avoiding punishment), they recognize that a certain way of behaving is an expedient means to that goal, and they make plans to modify their behavior in such a manner that they are likely to experience the desired outcome”. However, motivation in foreign language learning is more broadly categorized into two types: integrative and instrumental motivation In a pioneering study, Gardner and Lambert (1972: 132) highlighted “integrative motivation” which stresses “a sincere and personal interest in the people and culture represented by the other group” and “instrumental motivation” which stresses “the practical value and advantages of learning a new language”. Gardner’s later socio-educational model (1982) adds three aspects of student motivation: effort (time and drive), desire (extent of language proficiency wished for) and effect (emotional reactions to language study). Integrative motivation is the desire on the part of the student to feel an affinity with the people, the society and the culture of the language that is learned, and is usually referred to in the context of living in the target language community (Falk 1978, and Finnegan, 1999). Instrumental motivation, on the other hand, concerns the practical and concrete rewards that student’s desire (Hudson, 2000). This relates to achievement purposes for instance passing an exam or getting a degree. A student’s opinion of a given language is significantly shaped by its perceived usefulness and relevance to future career goals (Chambers, 1999). 2.1.4. Main de-motivating factors affecting motivation in learning foreign language 2.1.4.1 Conceptions of de-motivation Dornyei (2005: 143) defined de-motivation as “specific external forces that reduce or diminish the motivational basis of a behavioral intention or an ongoing action”. Deci and Ryan (1985) used a similar term “a-motivation”, which means “the relative absence of motivation that is not caused by a lack of initial interest but rather by the individual’s experiencing feelings of incompetence and helplessness when faced with the activity.” Dornyei pointed out that de-motivation does not mean that all the positive influences that originally made up the motivational basis of a behavior have been got rid of. It only means that a strong negative factor restrains the present motivation with some other positive motives still remain ready to be activated. 2.1.4.2 De-motivating factors affecting motivation in learning foreign language. According to Dornyei, factors de-motivating students’ learning are as follows. The teacher (personality, commitment, competence, teaching method); Inadequate school facilities (group is too big or not the right level, frequent change of teachers); Reduced self-confidence (experience of failure or lack of success); Negative attitude towards the L2; Compulsory nature of L2 study; Interference of another foreign language being studied; Negative attitude towards L2 community; Attitudes of group members; Course-book Basing on Dornyei’s study, factors affecting students’ motivation can be classified into learner’s factors, teacher’s factors, environment factors, and teaching and learning conditions. 2.1.4.2.1. Learner’s factors a. Intelligence: Intelligence is the term referring to performance on certain kinds of tests ( Lightbown & Spada), 1999:52). Through these tests, teachers are able to classify successful or unsuccessful students in the class performance. While some studies have reported that there is a link between intelligence measured by IQ tests and second language learning, some students, in fact, whose academic performance is weak, are successful in L2 learning. b. Aptitude: Aptitude refers to the special ability involved in second language learning (Douglas et al 1995). The relationship between aptitude and second language learning success is a very important one and various studies, such as Gardner (1980) and Skehan (1989) have reported that aptitude is a major factor determining the level of success of second language learning (Douglous et al 1995). Students can have a “good aptitude for learning”. This can infer various things, such as: The understanding of the function of words in sentences. The ability to understand and use grammatical rules. Memory of key words, what they mean and how to use them. An important point regarding aptitude and second language learning is that successful learners may not be strong in all the components of aptitude and can still succeed at learning a second language. For example, some individuals may have strong memories but only average abilities in the other components of aptitude (Spada 1999). c. Personality Learners’ emotional states have a powerful influence on their behavior and performance in the classroom and other learning situations.  There are various theories that claim that personality factors are important predictors of success in second language learning.  Personality traits such as extroversion, introversion, risk-taking, independence and empathy have been the basis of discussions and disputes relating to this topic (Ellis 1986). d. Learning strategies As in all school topics, learning strategies are a factor of second language learning. One definition of learning strategies is: “Steps or actions taken by learners to improve the development of their language skills” (Gass et al 1993: 265). Different learning strategies work best for different people when learning a second language.  For example, one student may learn vocabulary through writing and practicing the vocabulary using cue cards, whereas another student may only read the vocabulary and learn that way. e. Leaners’ belief Most learners have strong belief about how languages are learnt, how their instruction should be divided. “These beliefs are usually based on previous learning experiences and the assumption (right or wrong) that a particular type of instruction is the best way for them to learn. ( Lightbrown, 1999:59) f. Age of acquisition Age is another characteristic of learners which affects learners’ success in second language learning. It is believed that children are better than adults at acquiring a second language. It is also often claimed that there is a critical period for second language acquisition ends around puberty or even earlier. g. Confidence, Anxiety Learner's motivation can vary tremendously according to their confidence and anxiety they have toward the language they are learning and the environment they are in. Not only is anxiety related to motivation, but it is also related to proficiency and more so to communication proficiency, as suggested by Clement, Dornyei and Noels (1994). 2.1.4.2.2 Factors related to learning environment Learning environment involves physical conditions and classroom atmosphere. The former refers to the classroom size, chairs, desk, tables, lights, boards and even bulletin boards. Harmer, J. (1992), replicated by Nguyen Mai Nhung (2003), confirms that such conditions had great influence on students’ learning as well as their attitudes toward the subject matter. These conditions, therefore, affected students’ motivation either positively or negatively. The other factor related to learning environment is a pleasant and supportive atmosphere in the classroom as Lightbown, P.M. & Spada, N. (1999) claim that the supportive and non-threatening atmosphere makes a contribution to learners’ motivation. 2.1.4.2. 3 Teachers’ factors Based on Dornyei (2001), teachers' factors and appropriate teacher behaviors are mentioned as follows: - Enthusiasm - Commitment to and expectations for the students' academic progress - Good relationship with the students - Acceptance - Ability to listen and pay attention to students a. Enthusiasm An American psychologist, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi conducted a survey into the question "Who have been your most influential teachers?” He then addressed in a thought- provoking (1997) that it was the enthusiastic ones. It is teachers' love; de