Tài chính doanh nghiệp - Chapter 18: Dividend policy

Passive Versus Active Dividend Policies Factors Influencing Dividend Policy Dividend Stability Stock Dividends and Stock Splits Stock Repurchase Administrative Considerations

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Chapter 18Dividend Policy© 2001 Prentice-Hall, Inc.Fundamentals of Financial Management, 11/eCreated by: Gregory A. Kuhlemeyer, Ph.D.Carroll College, Waukesha, WIDividend PolicyPassive Versus Active Dividend PoliciesFactors Influencing Dividend PolicyDividend StabilityStock Dividends and Stock SplitsStock RepurchaseAdministrative ConsiderationsDividends as a Passive ResidualThe firm uses earnings plus the additional financing that the increased equity can support to finance any expected positive-NPV projects.Any unused earnings are paid out in the form of dividends. This describes a passive dividend policy.Can the payment of cash dividends affect shareholder wealth?If so, what dividend-payout ratio will maximize shareholder wealth?Irrelevance of DividendsM&M contend that the effect of dividend payments on shareholder wealth is exactly offset by other means of financing.The dividend plus the “new” stock price after dilution exactly equals the stock price prior to the dividend distribution.A. Current dividends versus retention of earningsIrrelevance of DividendsM&M and the total-value principle ensures that the sum of market value plus current dividends of two firms identical in all respects other than dividend-payout ratios will be the same.Investors can “create” any dividend policy they desire by selling shares when the dividend payout is too low or buying shares when the dividend payout is excessive.B. Conservation of valueRelevance of DividendsUncertainty surrounding future company profitability leads certain investors to prefer the certainty of current dividends.Investors prefer “large” dividends.Investors do not like to manufacture “homemade” dividends, but prefer the company to distribute them directly.A. Preference for dividendsRelevance of DividendsCapital gains taxes are deferred until the actual sale of stock. This creates a timing option.Capital gains are preferred to dividends, everything else equal. Thus, high dividend-yielding stocks should sell at a discount to generate a higher before-tax rate of return.Certain institutional investors pay no tax.B. Taxes on the investorRelevance of DividendsCorporations can typically exclude 70% of dividend income from taxation. Thus, corporations generally prefer to receive dividends rather than capital gains.The result is clienteles of investors with different dividend preferences. In equilibrium, there will be the proper distribution of firms with differing dividend policies to exactly meet the needs of investors.Thus, dividend-payout decisions are irrelevant.B. Taxes on the investor (continued)Other Dividend IssuesFlotation costsTransaction costs and divisibility of securitiesInstitutional restrictionsFinancial signalingEmpirical Testing of Dividend PolicyTax EffectDividends are taxed more heavily than capital gains, so before-tax returns should be higher for high-dividend-paying firms.Empirical results are mixed -- recently the evidence is largely consistent with dividend neutrality.Financial SignalingExpect that increases (decreases) in dividends lead to positive (negative) excess stock returns.Empirical results are consistent with these expectations.Implications for Corporate PolicyEstablish a policy that will maximize shareholder wealth.Distribute excess funds to shareholders and stabilize the absolute amount of dividends if necessary (passive).Payouts greater than excess funds should occur only in an environment that has a net preference for dividends.Implications for Corporate PolicyThere is a positive value associated with a modest dividend. Could be due to institutional restrictions or signaling effects.Dividends in excess of the passive policy does not appear to lead to share price improvement because of taxes and flotation costs.Factors Influencing Dividend PolicyCapital Impairment Rule -- many states prohibit the payment of dividends if these dividends impair “capital” (usually either par value of common stock or par plus additional paid-in capital).Incorporation in some states (notably Delaware) allows a firm to use the “fair value,” rather than “book value,” of its assets when judging whether a dividend impairs “capital.”Legal RulesFactors Influencing Dividend PolicyInsolvency Rule -- some states prohibit the payment of cash dividends if the company is insolvent under either a “fair market valuation” or “equitable” sense.Undue Retention of Earnings Rule -- prohibits the undue retention of earnings in excess of the present and future investment needs of the firm.Legal RulesFactors Influencing Dividend PolicyFunding Needs of the FirmLiquidityAbility to BorrowRestrictions in Debt ContractsControlOther Issues to ConsiderDividend StabilityStability -- maintaining the position of the firm’s dividend payments in relation to a trend line.Dollars Per Share3421Earnings per shareDividendsper shareTime50% of earningspaid out as dividendsDividend StabilityDividends begin at 50% of earnings, but are stable and increase only when supported by growth in earnings.Dollars Per Share3421Earnings per shareDividends per shareTime50% dividend-payoutrate with stabilityValuation of Dividend StabilityInformation content -- management may be able to affect the expectations of investors through the informational content of dividends. A stable dividend suggests that the company expects stable or growing dividends in the future.Current income desires -- some investors who desire a specific periodic income will prefer a company with stable dividends to one with unstable dividends.Institutional considerations -- a stable dividend may permit certain institutional investors to buy the common stock as they meet the requirements to be placed on the organizations “approved list.”Types of DividendsExtra dividendA nonrecurring dividend paid to shareholders in addition to the regular dividend. It is brought about by special circumstances.Regular DividendThe dividend that is normally expected to be paid by the firm.Stock Dividends and Stock SplitsSmall-percentage stock dividendsTypically less than 25% of previously outstanding common stock.Assume a company with 400,000 shares of $5 par common stock outstanding pays a 5% stock dividend. The pre-dividend market value is $40. How does this impact the shareholders’ equity accounts?Stock Dividend -- A payment of additional shares of stock to shareholders. Often used in place of or in addition to a cash dividend.B/S Changes for the Small-Percentage Stock Dividend$800,000 ($5 x 20,000 new shares) transferred (on paper) “out of” retained earnings.$100,000 transferred “into” common stock account.$700,000 ($800,000 - $100,000) transferred “into” additional paid-in-capital.“Total shareholders’ equity” remains unchanged at $10 million.Small-Percentage Stock DividendsBefore 5% Stock DividendCommon stock ($5 par; 400,000 shares) $ 2,000,000Additional paid-in capital 1,000,000Retained earnings 7,000,000 Total shareholders’ equity $10,000,000After 5% Stock DividendCommon stock ($5 par; 420,000 shares) $ 2,100,000Additional paid-in capital 1,700,000Retained earnings 6,200,000 Total shareholders’ equity $10,000,000Stock Dividends, EPS, and Total EarningsAssume that investor SP owns 10,000 shares and the firm earned $2.50 per share.Total earnings = $2.50 x 10,000 = $25,000.After the 5% dividend, investor SP owns 10,500 shares and the same proportionate earnings of $25,000.EPS is then reduced to $2.38 per share because of the stock dividend ($25,000 / 10,500 shares = $2.38 EPS).After a small-percentage stock dividend, what happens to EPS and total earnings of individual investors?Stock Dividends and Stock SplitsTypically 20% or greater of previously outstanding common stock.The material effect on the market price per share causes the transaction to be accounted for differently. Reclassification is limited to the par value of additional shares rather than pre-stock-dividend value of additional shares.Assume a company with 400,000 shares of $5 par common stock outstanding pays a 100% stock dividend. The pre-stock-dividend market value per share is $40. How does this impact the shareholders’ equity accounts?Large-percentage stock dividendsB/S Changes for the Large-Percentage Stock Dividend$2 million ($5 x 400,000 new shares) transferred (on paper) “out of” retained earnings.$2 million transferred “into” common stock account.Large-Percentage Stock DividendsBefore 100% Stock DividendCommon stock ($5 par; 400,000 shares) $ 2,000,000Additional paid-in capital 1,000,000Retained earnings 7,000,000 Total shareholders’ equity $10,000,000After 100% Stock DividendCommon stock ($5 par; 800,000 shares) $ 4,000,000Additional paid-in capital 1,000,000Retained earnings 5,000,000 Total shareholders’ equity $10,000,000Stock Dividends and Stock SplitsSimilar economic consequences as a 100% stock dividend.Primarily used to move the stock into a more popular trading range and increase share demand.Assume a company with 400,000 shares of $5 par common stock splits 2-for-1. How does this impact the shareholders’ equity accounts?Stock Split -- An increase in the number of shares outstanding by reducing the par value of the stock.Stock SplitsBefore 2-for-1 Stock SplitCommon stock ($5 par; 400,000 shares) $ 2,000,000Additional paid-in capital 1,000,000Retained earnings 7,000,000 Total shareholders’ equity $10,000,000After 2-for-1 Stock SplitCommon stock ($2.50 par; 800,000 shares) $ 2,000,000Additional paid-in capital 1,000,000Retained earnings 7,000,000 Total shareholders’ equity $10,000,000Value to Investors of Stock Dividends or Stock SplitsEffect on investor total wealthEffect on investor psycheEffect on cash dividendsMore popular trading rangeInformational contentStock Dividends and Stock SplitsUsed to move the stock into a more popular trading range and increase share demand.Usually signals negative information to the market upon its announcement (consistent with empirical evidence).Assume a company with 400,000 shares of $5 par common stock splits 1-for-4. How does this impact the shareholders’ equity accounts?Reverse Stock Split -- A stock split in which the number of shares outstanding is decreased.Reverse Stock SplitsBefore 1-for-4 Stock SplitCommon stock ($5 par; 400,000 shares) $ 2,000,000Additional paid-in capital 1,000,000Retained earnings 7,000,000 Total shareholders’ equity $10,000,000After 1-for-4 Stock SplitCommon stock ($20 par; 100,000 shares) $ 2,000,000Additional paid-in capital 1,000,000Retained earnings 7,000,000 Total shareholders’ equity $10,000,000Stock RepurchaseReasons for stock repurchase:Available for management stock-option plansAvailable for the acquisition of other companies“Go private” by repurchasing all shares from outside stockholdersTo permanently retire the sharesStock Repurchase -- The repurchase (buyback) of stock by the issuing firm, either in the open (secondary) market or by self-tender offer.Methods of RepurchaseFixed-price self-tender offer -- An offer by a firm to repurchase some of its own shares, typically at a set price.Dutch auction self-tender offer -- A buyer (seller) seeks bids within a specified price range, usually for a large block of stock or bonds. After evaluating the range of bid prices received, the buyer (seller) accepts the lowest price that will allow it to acquire (dispose of) the entire block.Open-market purchase -- A company repurchases its stock through a brokerage house on the secondary market.Repurchasing as Part of Dividend PolicyAssume:Earnings after taxes $ 800,000Number of common shares outstanding ¸ 400,000Earnings per share $ 2Current market price per share $ 31Expected dividend per share $ 1Expected total dividends to be paid out $ 400,000Repurchasing as Part of Dividend PolicyIf dividend is paid, shareholders receive:Expected dividend per share $ 1Market price per share $ 30Total value $ 31If shares repurchased, shareholders receive:Dividend per share $ 0Market price per share* $ 31Total value $ 31* Shares repurchased = $400,000 / $31 = 12,903 Original P/E ratio = $30/$2 = 15 “New” EPS = $800,000 / 387,097 = $2.07 “New” market price = $2.07 x 15 = $31Summary of Repurchasing as Part of Dividend PolicyThe capital gain arising from the repurchase (stock rising from $30 to $31) exactly equals the dividend ($1) that would have otherwise been paid.This result holds in the absence of taxes and transaction costs.To the taxable investor, capital gains (repurchases) are favored to dividend income as the tax on the capital gain is postponed until the actual sale of the common shares.Summary of Repurchasing as Part of Dividend PolicyStock repurchases are most relevant for firms with large amounts of excess cash that might otherwise generate a significant taxable transaction to investors.Firms must be careful not to make regularly occurring repurchases or the IRS may consider the capital gains as dividends for tax purposes.Investment or Financing Decision?Financing DecisionIt possesses capital structure or dividend policy motivations.For example, a repurchase immediately changes the debt-to-equity ratio (higher financial leverage).Investing DecisionNot really, as stock that is repurchased is held as treasury stock and does not provide an expected return like other investments.Possible Signaling EffectRepurchases have a positive signaling effect.For example, if the stock is undervalued management may tender for shares at a “premium.” This signals that the share prices are undervalued.Dutch-auction self-tenders have less signaling power likely due to a smaller tender premium.Open-market purchases have only a modest positive signaling effect likely due to many programs being instituted after significant share price declines.Administrative Considerations: Procedural AspectsRecord Date -- The date, set by the board of directors when a dividend is declared, on which an investor must be a shareholder of record to be entitled to the upcoming dividend.The board of directors met on May 8th to declare a dividend payable to shareholders on June 15th to the shareholders of record on May 31st.May 8May 29May 31June 15Administrative Considerations: Procedural AspectsEx-dividend Date -- The first date on which a stock purchaser is no longer entitled to the recently declared dividend.The buyer and seller of the shares have several days to settle (pay for the shares or deliver the shares). The brokerage industry has a rule that new shareholders are entitled to dividends only if they purchase the stock at least two business days prior to the record date.May 8May 29May 31June 15Administrative Considerations: Procedural AspectsDeclaration Date -- The date that the board of directors announces the amount and date of the next dividend.Payment Date -- The date when the corporation actually pays the declared dividend.May 8May 29May 31June 15Dividend Reinvestment PlansThe firm can use existing stock. A trustee (e.g., a bank) purchases the stock on the open market and credits current shareholders with the new shares.The firm can issue new stock. This method raises “new” funds for the firm. The plan essentially reduces the effective dividend-payout ratio.Some plans offer discounts and eliminate brokerage costs for current shareholders.Dividend Reinvestment Plan (DRIP) -- An optional plan allowing shareholders to automatically reinvest dividend payments in additional shares of the company’s stock.
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