Bài giảng Business Communication - Chapter 14: Using Visuals to Make Your Point

Chapter Overview Plan which parts of your document should be supported by visuals. Understand how visuals are presented—size, layout, type, rules, borders, etc. Construct textual graphics. Construct visual graphics. Learn common errors in constructing and using graphics. Place and interpret visuals effectively.

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Chapter 14:Using Visuals to Make Your Point© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. Plan which parts of your document should be supported by visuals.Understand how visuals are presented—size, layout, type, rules, borders, etc.Construct textual graphics.Construct visual graphics.Learn common errors in constructing and using graphics.Place and interpret visuals effectively.Chapter OverviewPlanning the VisualsDetermine the purpose.Overall purpose: to communicateSpecific purposesClarify complex or difficult informationEmphasize factsAdd coherence SummarizeProvide interestFilter vast amounts of dataEnhance appearanceSelect the visuals.Nature of the content and contextReader’s needsConstructing VisualsSizeLayout and TypeRules and BordersColor and Cross-Hatching Clip ArtBackgroundNumberingConstruction and Placement of TitlesFootnotes and AcknowledgmentsSizeSize the graphic according to its contents. Simple graphics can be small.Complex graphics must be large enough to see clearly.Consider using extra large paper for extremely complex graphics.Layout and TypeLet size and content determine layout.Select type style and font for consistency.Determine the size appropriate for the context.Choose layout and type that are easily readable.Rules and BordersRules and bordersProvide unity for a graphic or among graphics.Separate the graphic from text.Emphasize a graphic’s contents.Rules and borders should be used especially for graphics of less than one page.Rules and borders should stay within page/text margins.Color and Cross-HatchingHelp the reader see comparisons and distinctions.Improve comprehension, retention, and the ease and speed of extracting information.Make a graphic more visually appealing.© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. Clip ArtUse it to add interest.Avoid overusing clip art.Select clip art with a purpose in mind.Keep its nature and size appropriate.Select clip art that is appropriate for the audience.Get permission to use copyrighted art.Wording and Placing TitlesWordingConstruct a title that describes the entire graphic, using the 5 Ws and 1H.Consider a subtitle to explain the title more precisely.Capitalize using title case.PlacingTables: Place the title above the table.Other graphics: Place the title either above or below the graphic (be consistent).Footnotes and AcknowledgmentsUse footnotes to explain or elaborate.Use acknowledgments to identify the party responsible for gathering data.Visual Integrity: Avoiding Common ErrorsErrors of scaleUniform scale sizeScale distortionZero pointsErrors of formatWrong chart typeDistracting grids and shadingMisuse of typefaceProblems with labelsErrors of misleading contextObjective framingReader empathy Placing and Interpreting GraphicsPlace as close to discussion of the graphic as possible.Place supplemental graphics in an appendix.Omit graphics that don’t serve a purpose.Tell reader when to look at the graphic.Interpret the graphic using a GEE strategy (generalizationexampleexception).“Of all methods for analyzing and communicating statistical information, well-designed data graphics are usually the simplest and at the same time the most powerful.”—Edward Tufte, Author The Visual Display of Quantitative InformationKeep it Simple© 2014 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.