Bài giảng Business Research Methods - Chapter 12: Measurement Scales

Understand The nature of attitudes and their relationship to behavior. The critical decisions involved in selecting an appropriate measurement scale. The characteristics and use of rating, ranking, sorting, and other preference scales.

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Measurement ScalesChapter 12Learning ObjectivesUnderstand The nature of attitudes and their relationship to behavior. The critical decisions involved in selecting an appropriate measurement scale.The characteristics and use of rating, ranking, sorting, and other preference scales. Pull Quote“No man learns to know his inmost nature by introspection, for he rates himself sometimes too low, and often too high, by his own measurement. Man knows himself only by comparing himself with other men; it is life that touches his genuine worth.”Johann Wolfgang von GoetheGerman writer, artist, politician(1749–1832)The Scaling ProcessNature of AttitudesCognitiveI think oatmeal is healthierthan corn flakes for breakfast.AffectiveBehavioralI hate corn flakes.I intend to eat more oatmealfor breakfast.Improving Predictability Reference groupsMultiple measuresFactorsStrongSpecificBasisDirectMeasurement Scales“All survey questions must be actionable if you want results.” Frank Schmidt, senior scientistThe Gallup OrganizationSelecting a Measurement ScaleResearch objectivesResponse typesData propertiesNumber of dimensionsForced or unforcedchoicesBalanced or unbalancedRater errorsNumber of scale pointsResponse TypesRating scaleRanking scaleCategorizationSortingNumber of DimensionsUnidimensionalMulti-dimensionalBalanced or UnbalancedVery badBadNeither good nor badGoodVery goodPoorFairGoodVery goodExcellentHow good an actress is Jennifer Lawrence?Forced or Unforced ChoicesVery badBadNeither good nor badGoodVery goodVery badBadNeither good nor badGoodVery goodNo opinionDon’t knowHow good an actress is Jennifer Lawrence?Number of Scale PointsVery badBadNeither good nor badGoodVery goodVery badSomewhat badA little badNeither good nor badA little goodSomewhat goodVery goodHow good an actress is Jennifer Lawrence?Rater ErrorsError of central tendencyError of leniencyAdjust strength of descriptive adjectivesSpace intermediate descriptive phrases farther apartProvide smaller differences in meaning between terms near the ends of the scaleUse more scale points Rater ErrorsPrimacy EffectRecency EffectReverse order of alternatives periodically or randomlyRater ErrorsHalo Effect Rate one trait at a time Reveal one trait per page Reverse anchors periodicallySimple Category ScaleI plan to purchase a MindWriter laptop in the next 12 months. Yes NoMultiple-Choice, Single-Response ScaleWhat newspaper do you read most often for financial news? East City Gazette West City Tribune Regional newspaper National newspaper Other (specify:_________)Multiple-Choice, Multiple-Response ScaleCheck any of the sources you consulted when designing your new home. Online planning services Magazines Independent contractor/builder Designer Architect Other (specify:_______)Likert ScaleThe Internet is superior to traditional libraries for comprehensive searches. Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly AgreeSemantic DifferentialAdapting SD Scales Convenience of Reaching the Store from Your LocationNearby___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___:DistantShort time required to reach store___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___:Long time required to reach storeDifficult drive___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___:Easy DriveDifficult to find parking place___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___:Easy to find parking placeConvenient to other stores I shop___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___:Inconvenient to other stores I shopProducts offeredWide selection of different kinds of products ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___:Limited selection of different kinds of productsFully stocked___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___:UnderstockedUndependable products___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___:Dependable productsHigh quality___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___:Low qualityNumerous brands___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___:Few brandsUnknown brands___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___: ___:Well-known brandsSD Scale for Analyzing Actor CandidatesGraphic of SD AnalysisNumerical ScaleMultiple Rating List Scales“Please indicate how important or unimportant each service characteristic is:” IMPORTANT UNIMPORTANTFast, reliable repair 7 6 5 4 3 2 1Service at my location 7 6 5 4 3 2 1Maintenance by manufacturer 7 6 5 4 3 2 1Knowledgeable technicians 7 6 5 4 3 2 1Notification of upgrades 7 6 5 4 3 2 1Service contract after warranty 7 6 5 4 3 2 1Stapel ScalesConstant-Sum ScalesGraphic Rating ScalesRanking ScalesPaired-comparison scaleForced ranking scaleComparative scalePaired-Comparison ScaleForced Ranking ScaleComparative ScaleSortingCloseUp: MindWriter ScalingLikert ScaleThe problem that prompted service/repair was resolvedStrongly Disagree DisagreeNeither Agree Nor Disagree AgreeStrongly Agree12345Numerical Scale (MindWriter’s Favorite)To what extent are you satisfied that the problem that prompted service/repair was resolved?Very DissatisfiedVery Satisfied12345Hybrid Expectation ScaleResolution of the problem that prompted service/repair.Met Few ExpectationsMet Some ExpectationsMet Most ExpectationsMet All ExpectationsExceeded Expectations12345CloseUp: MindWriter ScalingIdeal Scalogram PatternItemParticipant Score 2 4 1 3XXXX4__XXX3____XX2______X1________0* X = agree; __ = disagree.Key TermsAttitudeBalanced rating scaleCategorizationComparative scaleConstant-sum scaleCumulative scaleError of central tendencyError of leniencyForced-choice rating scaleForced ranking scaleGraphic rating scaleHalo effectItem analysisLikert scaleMultidimensional scaleKey TermsMultiple-choice, multiple-response scaleMultiple-choice, single-response scaleMultiple rating list Numerical scalePaired-comparison scaleQ-sortRanking scaleRating scaleScalingScalogram analysisSemantic differentialSimple category scale Key TermsSortingStapel scaleSummated rating scaleUnbalanced rating scaleUnforced-choice rating scale Unidimensional scaleAdditional Discussion opportunitiesChapter 12PicProfile: i.ThinkOnline focus groupsCandid thoughtsModerator selection is criticalPicProfile: Online SurveysPicProfile: Snausages Breakfast BitesSocial media discussionsInvited dog lovers“What does your dog eat for breakfast?”Dog Lovers care about nutritional content of pet food.Snapshot: Maritz Customer SatisfactionNew non-compensatory modelScale overall satisfaction firstThen scale individual attributesWhat attribute made experience so good/bad as to offset all others?Snapshot: Paired Comparison“We now estimate that Americans with disabilities currently spent $13.2 billion in travel expenditures and that amount would at least double [to $27.2 billion] if travel businesses were more attuned to the needs of those with disabilities.”GalaxyTeen ShoppingStudy on teen shoppingCompete with specialty storesIntra-store boutiques?What scale?Pull Quote“Any measurement must take into account the position of the observer. There is no such thing as measurement absolute, there is only measurement relative.”Jeanette Wintersonjournalist and authorPulsePoint: Research Revelation34The percent of workers who are considered truly loyal.Measurement ScalesChapter 12Photo AttributionsSlideSource5©liquidlibrary/Picturequest10Steve Cole/Getty Images17Ryan McVay/Getty Images18Ingram Publishing19Jupiterimages20wavebreakmedia Ltd/Getty Images21Getty Images/Digital Vision25©Digital Vision/Getty Images26Juice Images/Cultura/Getty ImagesSlideSource28DreamPictures/Shannon Faulk/Getty Images29Jerry Ballard/Alamy42Courtesy of iThink43©Pamela S. Schindler44Royalty-Free/Corbis45Thinkstock Images/Getty Images46JUPITERIMAGES/Creatas/Alamy47©Fancy Collection/SuperStock