Bài giảng Quản trị thương hiệu - Chapter 13 Analyzing Content

Study of texts or messages is central to the communication discipline A variety of data collection and analytical methods Content analysis -- quantitative Interaction analysis -- quantitative Conversation analysis -- qualitative

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Chapter 13 Analyzing ContentStudy of texts or messages is central to the communication disciplineA variety of data collection and analytical methodsContent analysis -- quantitativeInteraction analysis -- quantitativeConversation analysis -- qualitative1Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Content AnalysisBoth data collection and analytical techniqueAllows researchers to make inferences by identifying specific characteristics of messagesManifest content Latent content2Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Content AnalysisObjectiveCarried out according to rules and proceduresSystematicIdentifying content to be codedCoding and interpreting contentGeneralityFindings should have theoretical relevance3Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Basic Principles of Content AnalysisA number of messages can be classified into a set of categoriesElements classified together have similar meaningsCategories produce frequency counts to allow for comparisonsResearcher addresses the relevance of frequencies to the theoretical propositions supporting the study4Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.What Content Can Be Analyzed?Any message or aspect of a message that can be capturedSources or senders of messagesReasons for sending messagesChannels messages are sent throughContent of messagesMessage effectsRecipients of messages5Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Content Analysis ProcessDevelop hypothesis or research question that calls for content analysisSelect messages to be analyzedSelect categories and units for codingDevelop procedures for resolving coding decision differences Select a sample if all messages cannot be codedCode messages into categoriesInterpret the results of the coding6Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Selecting What to CodeAre the messages available or must they be created?Narrow the data set for the elements of interestMay still need to sample elementsMessages may have structural characteristics that need to be considering in sampling7Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Developing Content CategoriesBased on theoretical premise or can emerge from the dataWhat was saidHow message was saidCategories must beExhaustiveEquivalentMutually exclusiveBe careful of using “other” as a catchall category8Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Unit of AnalysisDiscrete element that is coded and countedRules for identifying the unit should be explicitTypical units of analysis in communicationWords or phrasesComplete thoughts or sentencesThemesParagraphsCharacters or speakersCommunicative acts, behaviors, or processesTelevision programs or scenes9Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Training CodersAll coders must be trainedIncreases coding agreementCommit coding system and rules to paperPractice on similar texts or messages Once sufficient degree of reliability is established, coders then work independently10Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Coding Reliability and ValidityIntercoder or interrater reliabilityUnitizing reliability Coding reliability Validity – appropriateness and adequacy of coding scheme for this set of messages11Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Interpreting Coding ResultsAnalysis must be relevant to hypothesis or research questionFrequenciesDifferencesTrendsPatternsStandards12Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Strengths and Limitations of Content Analysis ResearchStrengthsData close to the communicatorUnobtrusiveApplicable to a variety of text or message structuresLimitationsIf message cannot be captured, it cannot be codedCoding scheme may not reveal nuances of messagesSelection process may not be representative13Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Interaction AnalysisResearcher codes content of ongoing communication between two or more individualsIdentifies verbal or nonverbal features or functions of the stream of conversational elementsAllows complex analyses Intent and function of messagesEffect of messagesExamines messages relative to one another over time14Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Preparing and Coding InteractionInteraction is audio or videotaped and then transcribedCoders trainedInteraction must be unitizedUnitizing reliability calculatedInteraction coded according to coding schemeCoding reliability calculatedAll coding differences resolved15Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Analyzing and Interpreting the Coded DataReturn to the research question or hypothesis Compare to theoretical positionFrequency analysis is commonLook for patterns that simple frequency analyses cannot illuminate16Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Strengths and Limitations of Interaction AnalysisStrengthsElements before and after a coded element are considered Places emphasis on relative positionSeveral coding schemes have been developed and validated over timeLimitationsLimited by validity and representativeness of coding schemeOngoing streams of conversation are not neat and tidy – can be difficult to codeTime consuming17Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Conversation AnalysisDetailed analysis of a transcript of spoken discourseTypes of normal talk people use every dayClarifies regularities within speechIdentifies relationships between language and social structures18Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Example of Interaction Analysis CodingUnitSpeakerComplete ThoughtCoding335TomI say it’s better to go to Harvard.Proposition336aTerryYou guys really think if he goes to school and he flunks out he can’t go for a degree anywhere?Proposition336bTerryHe can.Assertion336cTerryHe can still go to the other place and still get his degree there.Elaboration19Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Conversation AnalysisReveals the structure of message contentPatterns of verbal and nonverbal elements within speaking turns that establishes what events “count as”Analyzes how conversation moves or unfoldsFocus is on the process of conversation between interactants20Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Conversation AnalysisNo formal research question or hypothesisNo speculation about what might happenConversation analyzed without considering other influencesNo other data collected21Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Conversation CharacteristicsMust be between two or more peopleMust occur on a real-time basisMust not be restricted, contrived, artificially stimulated, or manipulatedAll speakers must have opportunity to speak, even if they choose not to do soParticipants themselves determine who speaks, for how long, in what order, and what about22Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Process of Conversation AnalysisResearcher can observe a particular practice of conversation and then build an analysis of what is getting done through itResearcher can examine a conversation, identify an activity, and build an account of how conversation works to accomplish the activity23Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Data Collection and Analytical ProcessConversation must be audio or videotapedConversation must be transcribed in detail according to a standardized notation systemAnalysis completed through repeated listening to conversation Generally one coder responsible for entire process24Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Analyzing Content – Quantitative or Qualitative?Methodological choice depends on research question or hypothesisIs there a balance between method and meaning?If appropriate, texts should be selected through samplingTexts should be available to othersStandardized rules for transcribing should be usedProcedures for interpreting text should be decided in advanceInterpretation should be designed based on theory25Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Limitations to Analyzing ContentQuantitativeCannot capture complexity of conversationCannot replace interpretations made by peopleCannot represent the quality of messagesQualitativeConversation selection overly sensitive to researcher biasConsumers have difficult in evaluating quality of researchResearcher must make choices about how to present discourse26Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.