Bài giảng Chapter 2 The Research Process: Getting Started

Researcher as a detective Seeking answers to questions Answer exists, but is unknown to you If the answer is not known or available, conduct research to find the answer Research process depends on your abilities to search for and track down information

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Chapter 2 The Research Process: Getting StartedResearcher as a detectiveSeeking answers to questionsAnswer exists, but is unknown to youIf the answer is not known or available, conduct research to find the answerResearch process depends on your abilities to search for and track down information1The Research Process ModelRules and traditions to be followedMultiple paths existProceeds logically and steadily, yet is circular and cyclicalBe aware of obstacles and pitfalls2The Deductive Research ModelTheory guides the investigationGather data to assess whether theory is correctMove from known position to data3The Inductive Research ModelGather and analyze data framed around research questionFormulate theories based on dataMove from specific data to more general explanation4Identifying the Research ProblemIdeas from your experiencesIdeas from the mediaTurn broad topics into preliminary questionsWhat do your questions assume?Rephrase for clarity5Evaluating Your QuestionsClearly stated?Do others agree about its clarity?Asks only one question?Communication orientation?Biased?Can it be observed or measured?Time and resources?Who would be interested?How could the information be used?6Library Resources Scholarly articles in academic journalsCommunication journalsMultidisciplinary journals Scholarly booksSingle-authoredEdited collections7Basic Library SearchIdentify key termsKeyword search for each term in university catalogKeyword search to combine termsExamine resources for alternative keywordsCommunication databasesExpanded Academic IndexRead articles and booksCan you answer your question?8Detailed Library SearchCommunication YearbookHandbooks of communicationWeb of ScienceOther databases and resourcesRead articles and booksCan you answer your question?9Web ResourcesSearch enginesMeta-search enginesDetermine validity and utility of posted informationDateAuthor or sponsor10Adjusting the QuestionAdjust your question as you learn moreIncorporate information you find into your questionDid you uncover any relevant theories?Do theories provide competing explanations?11Reading Scholarly Books & ArticlesEvaluate the quality of the informationGet a historical overviewStart with a literature review Identify primary ideas and conclusionsTrack down others’ referencesSummarize what you’ve found12The Role of Theory in ResearchGenerally, quantitative research starts with theoryGenerally, qualitative research answers questions to develop theoryTheories are . . .Developed and tested incrementally over timeNever complete13Theory-Research Link Theory provides patterns for interpreting datalinks one study to anotherprovides a framework for understanding how communication concepts and issues are importanthelps us interpret the meaning of research findings14Theory-Research LinkScientific inquiry is a process of developing and testing theoryProcess is not always linearMeaningful inquiry drives theory or is theory-drivenMultiple studies used to develop or challenge theory15Continuing with the Research ProcessRepeat work of others if it is flawed or datedDisagreement among scholars may suggest a studyDevelop research studies to fill in the gapsDevelop research studies to answer the questions previous research results raise16