Chapter 5 Research Ethics

All researchers, even students, have a responsibility to conduct ethical research Participants in research studies should know and understand their rights and responsibilities Ethical considerations are part of the design of the research project

ppt15 trang | Chia sẻ: thanhlam12 | Ngày: 04/01/2019 | Lượt xem: 57 | Lượt tải: 0download
Bạn đang xem nội dung tài liệu Chapter 5 Research Ethics, để tải tài liệu về máy bạn click vào nút DOWNLOAD ở trên
Chapter 5 Research EthicsAll researchers, even students, have a responsibility to conduct ethical researchParticipants in research studies should know and understand their rights and responsibilitiesEthical considerations are part of the design of the research project1Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Ethical Questions in Planning ResearchResearcher has two broad ethical responsibilitiesScientific responsibility for following established guidelines and conducting research that will yield knowledge worth knowingThe researcher’s relationship to participants as it affects collection, interpretation, and reporting of data2Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Ethical Questions in Planning ResearchWhat are the benefits of this study?How will the consent of participants be gained?How will confidentiality/anonymity be handled?Are the participants appropriate for the study?Are there potential physical or psychological harmsHow will the researcher’s role affect the study?Is the research design valid?Is researcher capable of conducting the study?3Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.The Belmont ReportGuidelines adopted by federal departments and agenciesThree ethical principlesBeneficenceRespect for personsJusticeGoal is to design study to uphold these principles to the fullest degree possible4Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.BeneficenceThe well-being of participants is protectedParticipants protected from harmResearcher must maximize possible benefitsBenefits to participants must outweigh the risks5Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Respect for PersonsTreat individuals as capable of making decisionsRefrain from making choices for participantsParticipants must feel free to volunteer; no coercionProtecting those not capable of making their own decisions6Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.JusticeIssues of fairnessAll participants treated equallySelection of participantsAm I systematically selecting one group of participants because they areEasily available?In a position making it difficult to say no? In a position in which they can be manipulated into participating?7Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Institutional Review BoardInstitutional Review Board – IRBHuman Subjects ReviewIn place in each university to consider the soundness and reasonableness of research proposalsSubmit proposal before any data are collectedBoards determine if rights and welfare of research participants are adequately protected8Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.IRB ProposalsResearch questions or hypothesesBrief review of literatureDescription of how participants are recruited/selectedCopy of informed consent formResearch methods/proceduresHow benefits are maximized, risk minimizedHow anonymity/ confidentiality will be protectedInvestigator’s background9Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Informed ConsentForm must be given to participants any time data is collected from themCreates obligations and responsibilities for the researcherParticipant consent must be given voluntarilyWritten in a manner participants can understand – clear and accurate10Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Elements of Informed ConsentIdentification of researcher and organizationPurpose of studyFeatures of the research processExpected durationPossible risks and benefitsHow confidentiality and anonymity will be assuredAny physical or psychological harmsIf deception is usedTo whom questions can be directedParticipation is voluntaryCan discontinue at any time or refuse to participate without penaltyIndication that participant should have copy of form11Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Informed Consent for Quantitative ResearchTraditionally applied to all quantitative projectsDescribes the exact proceduresIndicates if participants will be exposed to any materials that may be threatening or distastefulMay require participant to sign and return a copy of the form12Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Informed Consent for Qualitative ResearchIRB will decide if informed consent is needed based onIs interaction occurring naturally in a public setting?Will researcher’s interaction with participants in that setting create negative consequences for any of the participants?Always check with your IRB to see if consent is needed13Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Ethical Issues in Conducting ResearchIntentional deceptionUse of confederatesPhysical and psychological harmUpholding anonymity and confidentialityVideotaping and audiotaping participantsDebriefing participants14Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Ethical Issues in Reporting ResearchEnsuring accuracyResearcher is always responsible for accuracy regardless of who helpsAvoiding plagiarism byUsing direct quoteUsing summaries or paraphrasesAcknowledge ideas or contributionsProtecting identities of participants15Copyright c 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.