Chapter 03 Research ethics

All researchers, even students, have a responsibility to conduct ethical research Participants in research studies should know and understand their rights and responsibilities Ethical considerations are part of the design of the research project

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Research ethicsChapter 3 All researchers, even students, have a responsibility to conduct ethical researchParticipants in research studies should know and understand their rights and responsibilitiesEthical considerations are part of the design of the research projectEthical questions in planning researchResearcher has two broad ethical responsibilitiesScientific responsibility for following established guidelines and conducting research that will yield knowledge worth knowingThe researcher’s relationship to participants as it affects collection, interpretation, and reporting of dataSpecifically -- How will the consent of participants be gained?How will confidentiality/anonymity be handled?Are the participants appropriate for the study?Are there potential physical or psychological harmsHow will the researcher’s role affect the study?Is the research design valid, credible?Is researcher capable of conducting the study?The belmont reportThree ethical principlesBeneficenceRespect for personsJusticeMust design research to uphold these principles to the fullest degree possiblebeneficenceThe well-being of participants is protectedParticipants protected from harmResearcher must maximize possible benefitsBenefits to participants must outweigh risks RisksBenefitsRespect for personsTreat individuals as capable of making decisionsRefrain from making choices for participantsParticipants must feel free to volunteer; no coercionProtecting those not capable of making their own decisionsjusticeIssues of fairnessAll participants treated equallySelection of participantsAm I systematically selecting one group of participants because they areEasily available?In a position making it difficult to say no? In a position in which they can be manipulated into participating?Institutional review boardUniversity Institutional Review BoardAlso called IRB or Human Subjects ReviewConsiders soundness and reasonableness of research proposalsDetermines if rights and welfare of research participants are adequately protected in research designSubmit proposal before any data are collectedIrb proposalsResearch questions or hypothesesBrief review of literatureDescription of how participants are recruited/selectedInformed consentResearch methodsHow benefits are maximized, risks minimizedAnonymity & confidentiality Investigator’s backgroundInformed consentInformation must be given to participants any time data are collected from themCreates obligations and responsibilities for the researcherParticipant consent must be given voluntarilyWritten in a manner participants can understand – clear and accurateElements of informed consentIdentification of researcher and organizationPurpose of studyFeatures of research processExpected durationPossible risks and benefitsHow confidentiality and anonymity assuredAny physical or psychological harmsIf deception is usedTo whom follow-up questions can be directedParticipation is voluntaryCan discontinue or refuse to participate without penaltyIndication that participant should have copy of formfor quantitative researchTraditionally applied to all quantitative projectsDescribes the exact proceduresIndicates if participants will be exposed to any materials that may be threatening or distastefulMay require participant to sign and return a copy of the formfor qualitative researchIRB will decide if informed consent is needed based onIs interaction occurring naturally in a public setting?Will researcher’s interaction with participants in that setting create negative consequences for any of the participants?Always check with your IRB to see if consent is requiredEthical issues in conducting researchIntentional deceptionUse of confederatesPhysical and psychological harmUpholding anonymity and confidentialityVideotaping and audiotaping participantsDebriefing participantsEthical issues in reporting researchEnsuring accuracyResearcher is always responsible for accuracy regardless of who helpsAvoiding plagiarism byUsing direct quotes with proper citationsUsing summaries or paraphrasesAcknowledge ideas or contributionsProtecting identities of participants