Kế toán doanh nghiệp - Chapter 14: Other business processes

Explain its role and purpose. Explain how the generic structure of most AIS applies. Identify and process common transactions. Design and critique internal controls based on common risk exposures. Develop and interpret process-related systems documentation. Appropriately use terminology common to each process. Explain how each process is related to Porter's value chain.

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Chapter 14Other Business ProcessesOutlineLearning objectivesProcesses overviewAIS elementsLearning objectivesExplain its role and purpose.Explain how the generic structure of most AIS applies.Identify and process common transactions.Design and critique internal controls based on common risk exposures.Develop and interpret process-related systems documentation.Appropriately use terminology common to each process.Explain how each process is related to Porter's value chain.For each process discussed in this chapter:Processes overviewThis chapter considers three business processes:ConversionFinancingHuman resourcesWhile at least as important as the sales / collection & acquisition / payment processes, they do not generalize as well.Processes overviewConversion processPurpose: convert direct material, direct labor and manufacturing overhead into finished productsConnected to cost accountingValue chain element: operationsTypesJob orderProcessHybridProcesses overviewFinancing processPurpose: acquire & pay for additional funding through debt and equity securitiesConnected to intermediate accounting & financeValue chain: infrastructureProcesses overviewHuman resources processPurpose: manage human assets from hiring through departureConnected to intermediate accounting and managementValue chain: human resource managementAIS elementsInputsProcessesOutputsStorageInternal controlsThe following slides will explore the five generic AIS elements within the context of each business process:ConversionFinancingHuman resourcesAIS elementsConversion processInput & output documentsMaterials requisitionJob cost sheetProduction cost reportAIS elementsConversion processProcessesManufacturing steps depend on the specific productCommon transactionsRaw material purchasedRaw material usedOverhead allocatedCost flows through the AISAIS elementsConversion processStorageMaster filesRaw materialsEmployeeTransaction filesPurchase raw materialsIssue raw materials to productionJunction fileIssue raw materials / raw materialsAIS elementsConversion processInternal controlsEquipment maintenance scheduleAdequate training and supervisionVideo surveillanceQuality testingAnd a host of others!AIS elementsFinancing processInput & output documentsBondsShares of stockDividend checksAIS elementsFinancing processProcesses & common transactionsInitial public offeringBond issuanceDividend paymentsStock splitsPrincipal & interest payments on bondsPurchase of treasury sharesAIS elementsFinancing processStorageMaster filesStockholdersBondholdersCashTransaction filesIssue capital stockPay bond interestJunction fileBonds payable / pay bond interestAIS elementsFinancing processInternal controlsBudgetsAppropriate approvals, such as for dividend paymentsInformation technologySeparation of dutiesAnd many others!AIS elementsHuman resources processInput & output documentsForms W-2 and W-4Form 1099Payroll registerForms 940 and 941AIS elementsHuman resources processProcesses & common transactionsHiring new employeesEvaluating employee performanceTerminating employeesPaying employee pensionsDepositing withholdingsAIS elementsHuman resources processStorageMaster filesEmployeesIndependent contractorsCashTransaction filesPay employeesConduct performance reviewsJunction fileEmployee / assign employee to projectAIS elementsHuman resources processInternal controlsWritten performance reviewsCode of ethics / code of conductSeparate payroll bank accountSeparation of dutiesAdequate supervisionAnd many others!