Y học thưởng thức - Chapter 1: The nature and purpose of research

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Conducting and Reading Research in Health and Human PerformanceChapter 1 The Nature and Purpose of ResearchConsumer of Research InformationAdvil“Nothing is proven more effective or longer lasting than Advil.”Oral-B Toothbrush“You can buy a fancier toothbrush. But you can’t buy a more effective one.”Duracell Battery“No other battery lasts longer.”Revlon Skin Cream“In just one week, fine dry lines and wrinkles are reduced by over 38%.”Essence of a ProfessionThe pursuit of knowledge and its dissemination is a unique characteristic of a “profession”Research is the basis for advancing the body of knowledge of a professionWhat is your vision of a researcher????????Research Defined Not really a universal definition A structured way of answering questions, a systematic method of inquiryResearch is nothing more or less than finding answers to a question in a logical, orderly, and systematic fashionTwo key componentsSystematic in natureFocuses on a question of interestSources of KnowledgeMyth or traditionAuthorityObservation or personal experienceLogic or deductive reasoningScientific inquiryObjectiveData GatheringControlled NatureDeductive ReasoningUses logic that moves from general to specificModel for review of literature . . . enables the researcher to organize and synthesize available information, theorize about the problem, and deduce hypotheses to be tested by the researchCategorical Syllogism Every mammal has lungs. All rabbits are mammals. Therefore, every rabbit has lungs.Inductive ReasoningUses logic that moves from the specific to generalFundamental principle of scientific method . . . based upon observations of a small group, generalizations are made to a larger populationCategorical SyllogismEvery rabbit that has been observed has lungs. Therefore, every rabbit has lungsImperfect vs. Perfect InductionThe Scientific MethodA way of solving problems and acquiring knowledge that involves both deductive and inductive reasoning in a systematic approach to obtaining informationStages of the Scientific MethodQuestion IdentifiedHypothesis FormedResearch PlanData CollectedResults AnalyzedConclusionsNew Questions AriseStages of the Research ProcessQuestion defined - this involves selecting the question and precisely defining the problemHypothesis stated – literature reviewed to provide rationale for study and basis for anticipated solution or predicted outcomeResearch plan developed – methodology is developed which will permit examination of stated problem and to test hypothesisData are collected – the research plan is executed and the researcher will test, measure, or observe the phenomena in question in order to gather dataResults analyzed – appropriate statistical analysis is applied to the collected data in order to base a decision to confirm or refute the hypotheses (new questions often arise)Conclusions – the findings of the research are interpreted based upon the data analysis, thus providing answer to original questionResearch and TheoryThrough scientific inquiry (research), facts are discoveredThe interpretation or explanation of these facts is the basis for theory, which is a belief about how things relate to each otherTheory is not law, but could become law through additional research and experimentationA theory establishes a cause and effect relationship between variables for the purpose of explaining and predicting phenomena (Best & Kahn, 1998)Theory in ResearchUltimate goal of science is the formation of theory based upon the synthesis and interpretation of facts and informationHHP research has often neglected theoryGreater attention should be given to the theoretical basis of research in HHP and the explanation of facts and relationshipsTypes of ResearchSeveral research classifications have been proposedBasic vs. AppliedQuantitative vs. QualitativeExperimental vs. Non-experimentalNone of the various research categories are mutually exclusiveBasic ResearchPurpose is to discover new or fundamental knowledgePractical application is NOT a goalUsually in highly controlled laboratory settingsApplied ResearchPurpose is to find answers to practical problemsPractical in nature . . . most common in HHPInferences or generalizations are made to the intended populationAction Researchsimilar to applied research except in a local settingvery pragmatic and less controlledno interest in generalizing findingsQuantitative ResearchPositivist paradigmTraditional model of researchHypothesis directedBased on empirical evidenceMeasured with numbersAnalyzed statisticallySeeking generalizationsQualitative ResearchNaturalistic paradigmDescriptive in natureReliance on qualitative, non-numerical dataMore subjective approachVariety of methodologiesin depth interviewsdirect observationSituational specific little generalizabilityExperimental ResearchThe purpose of experimental research is to investigate cause-and-effect relationships by manipulating certain variables to determine their effect on another variable attempts to establish causalitymanipulation of independent variablecontrol of extraneous variables is vital often uses a control groupoften uses randomization proceduresmajor limitation is often unnatural environment, thus limiting generalizabilityNon-Experimental ResearchTends to observe, analyze, and describe what exists rather than manipulating the variable under studyLack of control is often cited as a limitationVarious types common in HHPCausal-comparativeDescriptiveCorrelationalHistoricalCasual-Comparative ResearchSeeks to investigate cause-and-effect relationships similar to experimental researchHowever, researcher cannot manipulate the independent variable because it is something the subject already hasAttribute or organismic variableGenderEthnicityMedical conditionAlso called “ex post facto” researchDescriptive ResearchSeeks to describe specific phenomena or characteristics of a particular group of subjectsAnswers the question “what is”No manipulation of an independent variableWide range of methodologiesSurveysDirect measurementObservationInterviewsCorrelational ResearchSeeks to determine whether, and to what extent, a relationship exists between two or more variablesNo manipulation of an independent variableMay be descriptive or predictive in natureCannot establish causalityHistorical ResearchSeeks to explore events and information from the past in order to provide a better understanding of the present with implications for the futureAnswers the question “what was”Limited to synthesis and interpretation of data that already existsPrimary sourcesSecondary sources
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