# Bài giảng Discrete mathematics I - Chapter 0: Introduction

Global • 6 principal chapters on 45 hours for courses & exercises. • 10 Labs (10%), 1 Assignment (10%) • 2 evaluations: mid-exam (MCQ - 60 minutes - 40%) + final exam (MCQ + writing - 120 minutes - 40%) Aims The content of this subject is mainly a great part of logic, set theory and graph theory. This is the mathematical base for many topics of Computational Science

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Introduction Huynh Tuong Nguyen, Tran Huong Lan Contents Course description Course outline Document Some applications 0.1 Chapter 0 Introduction Discrete Structures for Computing on September 11, 2014 Huynh Tuong Nguyen, Tran Huong Lan Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering University of Technology - VNUHCM Introduction Huynh Tuong Nguyen, Tran Huong Lan Contents Course description Course outline Document Some applications 0.2 Contents 1 Course description Course outline Document 2 Some applications Introduction Huynh Tuong Nguyen, Tran Huong Lan Contents Course description Course outline Document Some applications 0.3 Context Global • 6 principal chapters on 45 hours for courses & exercises. • 10 Labs (10%), 1 Assignment (10%) • 2 evaluations: mid-exam (MCQ - 60 minutes - 40%) + final exam (MCQ + writing - 120 minutes - 40%) Aims The content of this subject is mainly a great part of logic, set theory and graph theory. This is the mathematical base for many topics of Computational Science Introduction Huynh Tuong Nguyen, Tran Huong Lan Contents Course description Course outline Document Some applications 0.4 Subjects in general discrete mathematics course + Logic + Set theory + Number theory + Combinatorics: enumerative combinatorics, graph theory + Algorithmics + Information theory + Complexity theory + Probability theory + Proof + Counting and Relations Introduction Huynh Tuong Nguyen, Tran Huong Lan Contents Course description Course outline Document Some applications 0.5 Topics relational to the course 1 Theoretical computer science 2 Information theory 3 Logic 4 Set theory 5 Combinatorics 6 Graph theory 7 Probability 8 Number theory 9 Algebra 10 Calculus of finite differences, discrete calculus or discrete analysis 11 Geometry 12 Topology 13 Operations research: scheduling 14 Game theory, decision theory, utility theory, social choice theory 15 Discretization 16 Discrete analogues of continuous mathematics 17 . . . Introduction Huynh Tuong Nguyen, Tran Huong Lan Contents Course description Course outline Document Some applications 0.6 Context Course outline • Proof methods • modular arithmetic over integers. • induction, contradiction. • Set theory • relations, functions, cardinalities, relation, equivalence equation, partial order • combinatorics: counting, principles of sum, multiplication, division, inclusion and exclusion. • Graph theory • directed, undirected, isomorphism • weighted graphs, algorithm for finding shortest paths • trees: features, binary trees, minimum spanning trees in connected and weighted graphs • flows network • Probabilistics Modelling • introductory random variables. Introduction Huynh Tuong Nguyen, Tran Huong Lan Contents Course description Course outline Document Some applications 0.7 Document Book • Discrete mathematics and applications - Kenneth H. Rosen. (Vietnamese translation - NXB KHKT 1997) • Discrete mathematics - Richard Johnsonbaugh, Willey, 1997 • Discrete mathematics with algorithms - Micheal O. Albertson & Joan P. Hutchinson, Willey, 1998 Introduction Huynh Tuong Nguyen, Tran Huong Lan Contents Course description Course outline Document Some applications 0.8 Application • it concerns a wide range of disciplines in various areas: science, technology, business and commerce. • applied mathematicians are engaged in the creation, study and application of advanced mathematical methods relevant to specific problems. • applied mathematics has assumed a much broader meaning and embraces such diverse fields as communication theory, optimization, game theory and numerical analysis. • today there is a remarkable variety of applications of mathematics in industry and government, such as materials processing, design, medical diagnosis, development of financial products, network management, weather prediction, etc. Engineers use technology, mathematics and scientific knowledge to solve practical problems. (wikipedia.org) Science Technology Engineering Introduction Huynh Tuong Nguyen, Tran Huong Lan Contents Course description Course outline Document Some applications 0.9 Computing of algorithm complexity Know results Size Approximating of computational time n O(logn) O(n) O(n logn) O(n2) O(2n) O(n!) 10 3.10−9s 10−8s 3.10−8s 10−7s 10−6s 3.10−3s 102 7.10−9s 10−7s 7.10−7s 10−5s 4.1013y * 103 10−8s 10−6s 10−5s 10−3s * * 104 1, 3.10−8s 10−5s 10−4s 10−1s * * 105 1, 7.10−8s 10−4s 2.10−3s 10s * * 106 2.10−8s 10−3s 2.10−2s 17m * * Introduction Huynh Tuong Nguyen, Tran Huong Lan Contents Course description Course outline Document Some applications 0.10 Mathematical model Solver • Simplex, GLPK • CPLEX, MPL • Excel, Mathlab, etc. Introduction Huynh Tuong Nguyen, Tran Huong Lan Contents Course description Course outline Document Some applications 0.11 Mathematical model Exercise A bookseller A buys books from two publishers B, and C. Publisher B offers a package of 5 mysteries and 5 romance novels for \$50, and publisher C offers a package of 5 mysteries and 10 romance novels for \$150. The bookseller A wants to buy at least 2,500 mysteries and 3,500 romance novels, and he has promised C (who has influence on the Senate Textbook Committee) that at least 25% of the total number of books he purchases will come from publisher C. Question. How many packages should A order from each publisher in order to minimize his cost and satisfy C ? What will the novels cost him? Introduction Huynh Tuong Nguyen, Tran Huong Lan Contents Course description Course outline Document Some applications 0.12 Mathematical model Solution Let x be the number of packages from Publisher B, and let y be the number of packages from C. Problem: Minimize C = 50x+ 150y subject to • 5x+ 5y ≥ 2.500 • 5x+ 10y ≥ 3.500 • x− 4.5y ≤ 0 • x ≥ 0, y ≥ 0 Answer: Buy 484 packages from Publisher B and 108 from C for a total cost of \$40.400. Introduction Huynh Tuong Nguyen, Tran Huong Lan Contents Course description Course outline Document Some applications 0.13 Graph • Shortest path problem • Min cut and maximum flow • Vehicle Routing Problem Introduction Huynh Tuong Nguyen, Tran Huong Lan Contents Course description Course outline Document Some applications 0.14 Scheduling Introduction Huynh Tuong Nguyen, Tran Huong Lan Contents Course description Course outline Document Some applications 0.15 Scheduling Exercise Problem 1||Tmax. Given 8 jobs with processing times and due dates as follows: Job J1 J2 J3 J4 J5 J6 J7 J8 pi 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 3 di 25 16 19 7 18 22 27 8 Let Ci be completion time of job Ji and let Ti = max(0, Ci − di) its tardiness. Question. How to minimize Tmax = maxi Ti ? What is the minimum value of Tmax ? Introduction Huynh Tuong Nguyen, Tran Huong Lan Contents Course description Course outline Document Some applications 0.16 Timetabling Example In the bipartite graph below, the vertices P1, . . . , P6 represent workers and edges J1, . . . , J6 of jobs. An edge connects a worker with a job if the worker has the necessary qualifications to occupy this job. Here, all the edges have an unit weight 1, mean that Pi has the skill(competence) to operate Jj if there is an edge between Pi and Jj . P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 J1 J2 J3 J4 J5 J6 Introduction Huynh Tuong Nguyen, Tran Huong Lan Contents Course description Course outline Document Some applications 0.17 Game and simulation Sally Salon Game Introduction Huynh Tuong Nguyen, Tran Huong Lan Contents Course description Course outline Document Some applications 0.18 Probabilistics Modelling Calculating of Pi Using a Monte-Carlo method to determine an approximate value of pi : randomly draw a great number of points in a square of side 2, and determine the ratio C/N where N is the total number of points, and C the number of points whose distance to the center of the square is ≤ 1).