Y khoa - Dược - Chapter 2: Healthcare and the healthcare team

2.1 Discuss healthcare and healthcare trends and their relationship to medical assistant practice. 2.2 Identify medical specialties and specialists certified by the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS). 2.3 Recognize the duties of various allied health professionals with whom medical assistants may work.

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2Healthcare and the Healthcare Team2-*2.1 Discuss healthcare and healthcare trends and their relationship to medical assistant practice.2.2 Identify medical specialties and specialists certified by the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS).2.3 Recognize the duties of various allied health professionals with whom medical assistants may work.Learning Outcomes2-*2.4 Compare specialty careers that a medical assistant may choose for advancement.2.5 Differentiate professional associations that relate to healthcare and their relationship to the medical assisting profession.Learning Outcomes2-*IntroductionMedical assistants are an integral part of the health-care teamA working knowledge of specialties and allied health professionals enables the MA to function better as a member of the health-care team Healthcare and FacilitiesHealthcare continuously evolvingTrendsTechnologyPreventative care and wellnessAging populationAmbulatory care2-*Healthcare Facilities Ambulatory carePhysician’s officeClinicsUrgent care centersHospitals Long-term careHospice care2-*2-*Apply Your Knowledge What are two trends in healthcare and how might they affect your practice as a medical assistant?ANSWER: (any two of the following)Technology – MA must have a working knowledge of computers and electronic equipmentPreventive care & wellness – must be able to guide patients to better practicesAging population – medical assistants are most likely to care for older adults Ambulatory care – more positions becoming available in outpatient centersCorrect!2-*Medical Specialties Approximately 24 major medical specialties existDriven by advances in diagnosing and treating various diseasesAmerican Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS)CardiologyPediatric CardiologyAdult CardiologyCardiology = specialtyPediatrics and Adult = subspecialties2-*Medical Specialties SpecialistFunctionFamily PracticeFamily practitioner, general practitioner, primary care physician (PCP)Diagnosis and treatment of all conditions and age groupsManagement of patients’ long-term healthcareAllergyAllergistDiagnosis and treatment of people with hypersensitivity to substances such as drugs, chemicals, and elements in nature2-*Medical Specialties (cont.)SpecialtySpecialist and FunctionAnesthesiologyAnesthesiologist; certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA)Use of medications that alter sensation and feelings before, during, and after surgeryBariatricsMedical and surgical treatment of obesityCardiologyCardiologist Diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the heart and blood vessels2-*Medical Specialties (cont.)SpecialtySpecialist and FunctionDermatologyDermatologistDiagnosis and treatment of diseases of the skin, hair, and nailsOsteopathyDoctor of osteopathyOsteopathic manipulative medicine (OMM)Whole-person approach to healthcareEmergency MedicinePhysicians work in hospital emergency rooms and outpatient emergency care centersDiagnosis and treatment of conditions resulting from unexpected medical crises and accidents2-*Medical Specialties (cont.)SpecialtySpecialist and FunctionEndocrinologyEndocrinologistDiagnoses and treats disorders of the endocrine system, which regulates many body functionsGastroenterologyGastroenterologistDiagnosis and treatment of disorders of the stomach, intestines, and other organsGerontologyGerentologist / geriatricianDiagnosis and treatment of problems and diseases affecting older adults2-*Medical Specialties (cont.)SpecialtySpecialist and FunctionGynecologyGynecologist Diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the female reproductive system Internal MedicineInternist / doctor of internal medicineDiagnoses and treats problems related to internal organsNephrologyNephrologistStudy, management, and diagnosis of diseases of the kidney2-*Medical Specialties (cont.)SpecialtySpecialist and FunctionNeurologyNeurologistDiagnosis and treatment of disorders and diseases of the nervous systemNuclear MedicineUse of a small amount of radiation to diagnose and treat diseases ObstetricsObstetricianManages pregnancy, labor and delivery, and postpartum2-*Medical Specialties (cont.)SpecialtySpecialist and FunctionOncologyOncologistDiagnosis and treatment of patients with cancerOphthalmologyOphthalmologistDiagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders of the eyeOrthopedicsOrthopedistDiagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders of bones and muscles2-*Medical Specialties (cont.)SpecialtySpecialist and FunctionOtorhinolaryngologyOtorhinolaryngologist (ENT)Diagnoses and treats ear, nose, and throat disordersPathologyPathologistStudy of diseasePediatrics/ Adolescent MedicinePediatricianDiagnosis and treatment of childhood diseases2-*Medical Specialties (cont.)SpecialtySpecialist and FunctionPhysical MedicinePhysical medicine specialists (physiatrists)Diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders with physical therapyPodiatryDoctor of podiatric medicine; podiatristsStudy and treatment of disorders of the footPlastic SurgeryPlastic surgeonSurgical reconstruction, correction, and improvement of body structures2-*Medical Specialties (cont.)SpecialtySpecialist and FunctionProctologyProctologistDiagnosis and treatment of disorders of the anus, rectum, and intestinesRadiology Radiologist Use of x-rays and radioactive substances to diagnose and treat diseases Sports MedicineInterdisciplinary subspecialty of medicine dealing with treatment and preventative care of athletes 2-*Medical Specialties (cont.)SpecialtySpecialist and FunctionSurgerySurgeonUse of hands and instruments to diagnose, correct, and treat injuries and diseasesUrologyUrologistDiagnoses and treats diseases of the kidneys, bladder, and urinary system2-*Apply Your Knowledge Name the medical specialists who would be involved in the care of a 6-month-old infant with massive burns over 30% of the body and indicate how each specialist would contribute to the care for this situation.ANSWER: The following specialists could be involved in the care of this patient: Pediatrician because of the age of the infant Plastic surgeon to perform skin grafting Dermatologist for skin, hair, and nail repair Emergency medicine for treatment during medical crisis2-*PATIENTMedical AssistantsDoctorsSpecialistsNursesHealth-Care TeamKnowing the duties of other health-care team members will help you be a more effective team member.2-*Allied Health Professionals DisciplineFunctionAcupuncturist Treats pain or discomfort by inserting thin, hollow needles under the skin to balance the opposing forces of yin and yang Based on Chinese beliefs 2-*Allied Health Professionals (cont.)DisciplineFunctionChiropractorTreats disorders without drugs or surgery by making adjustments to realign the vertebrae and restore function of spinal nervesIs an independent practitionerElectroencephalographic (EEG) Technologist / TechnicianElectroencephalography is the study and recording of the brain’s electrical activityEEG technicians work in hospitals, physicians’ offices, and clinics2-*Allied Health Professionals (cont.)DisciplineFunctionMassage TherapistOne of the oldest methods to promote healingPromotes muscle and full body relaxation; increases circulation and lymph flow Uses pressure, kneading, stroking, vibration, and tapping2-*Allied Health Professionals (cont.)DisciplineFunctionMedical Technology – includes: Clinical Laboratory Technician (CLT)Performs lab tests under supervision of physicians or medical technologists1- or 2-year degreeMedical TechnologistExamines specimens of human body tissues and fluids, analyze blood factors, and culture bacteria4-year degreeMay specialize in blood banking, microbiology, or chemistry2-*Allied Health Professionals (cont.)DisciplineFunctionNuclear Medicine TechnologistDuties include:Overseeing quality controlPreparing and administering radioactive drugsOperating radiation detection instrumentsPositioning patientsPerforming imaging proceduresPrepare information for the physician2-*Allied Health Professionals (cont.)DisciplineFunctionOccupational TherapistHelps patients attain maximum physical and mental healthWorks with patients who have physical injuries or illnessespsychological or developmental problemsproblems associated with the aging process2-*Allied Health Professionals (cont.)DisciplineFunctionPharmacistDispenses medications and health supplies Know the chemical and physical qualities of drugs and is knowledgeable about the companies that manufacture drugs.Informs the public about the effects of prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medications.2-*Allied Health Professionals (cont.)DisciplineFunctionPhysical Therapist (PT)Plans and uses physical therapy programs to restore function, relieve pain, and prevent disabilityUses a variety of methods includingElectricity, heat, and cold Ultrasound and massageExercise2-*Allied Health Professionals (cont.)DisciplineFunctionRadiologic technology - includes:Radiographer (X-ray Technician)Assists a radiologist in taking x-ray films Radiographic TechnologistTrained in x-ray theory and practical applications for use of x-rays and radioactive materials for the treatment of diseaseMay specialize in radiation therapy, radiography, or nuclear medicineRadiation Therapy TechnologistAssist the radiologist in administering radiation treatmentsMaintains radiation treatment equipment2-*Allied Health Professionals (cont.)DisciplineFunctionRegistered DietitianAssists patients and family to make healthful food choicesAssists ill patients with nutritional needsAssists food-service directors at healthcare facilities prepare and serve foodParticipates in researchTeaches nutrition classes2-*Allied Health Professionals (cont.)DisciplineFunctionRespiratory Therapy – includes:Respiratory TherapistEvaluates, treats, and cares for patients with respiratory problems such as:AsthmaEmphysemaPneumoniaBronchitisRespiratory Therapy TechnicianPreforms procedures, cleans, sterilizes, and maintains respiratory equipment Documents therapy in medical record2-*Allied Health Professionals (cont.)DisciplineFunctionNursing Aide/AssistantDirect care of patients under the supervision of the nursing staffPractical/Vocational Nurse (LPN, LVN)Assists registered nurses and physicians by observing patients and reporting changes2-*Allied Health Professionals (cont.)DisciplineFunctionsRegistered NurseResponsible for planning, giving, and supervising bedside careAssociate Degree Nurse (ADN)Diploma RNBaccalaureate NurseNurse generalistsRoles other than hospital staff nurses2-*Allied Health Professionals (cont.)TitleFunctionNurse Practitioner (NP)An RN that functions in an expanded nursing roleDuties/functions depend upon practice settingIndependent practiceIn a physician’s practiceEmphasizes preventative healthcare2-*Allied Health Professionals (cont.)DisciplineFunctionPhysician Assistant (PA)Practices medicine under the laws of the state and supervision of a physicianProvide diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventative healthcare serviceSpeech/ Language PathologistTreats communication disordersEvaluates, diagnoses, and counsel patients2-*Apply Your KnowledgeIf you had to choose other healthcare team members to plan the care for a 68-year-old patient recently diagnosed with a stroke, who has a history of seizure disorders, which would you choose, and why? ANSWER: The healthcare team members that might participate in this patient’s care are: Physical therapist for decreased mobility due to strokePharmacist to review medicationsNutritionist for dietary evaluation and possible modificationsEEG technician to perform EEG for brain electrical activityNursing staff (RN, LPN, CNA)Other health-care professionals will also be part of the team!Good Job!2-*Specialty Career OptionsRequire additional education, training, or certificationAdministrative or clinicalAdministrative Specialty CareersBilling and Insurance SpecialistCertified Medical Reimbursement Specialist (CMRS)Compliance OfficerElectronic Claims Professional2-*Administrative Specialty Careers (cont.)Medical Biller and Coder, Health Information Coder, or Medical CoderMedical TranscriptionistRegistered Health Information Technician (RHIT) alsoMedical Record TechnicianMedical Chart Specialist2-*Clinical Specialty CareersAnesthesiologist AssistantCardiovascular TechnologistEmergency Medical Technician (EMT)2-*Clinical Specialty Careers (cont.)Mental Health TechnicianPhysical Therapy AssistantSurgical Technician2-*2-*Apply Your Knowledge List at least three administrative specialty and three clinical specialty careers.ANSWER: Administrative ClinicalBilling & Insurance Specialist Anesthesiologist AssistantCMRS Cardiovascular TechnologistCompliance Officer Dental AssistantElectronic Claims Professional EMTMedical Coder Mental Health TechnicianMedical Transcriptionist PT or OT AssistantRHIT Pathologist Assist Pharmacy Technician Phlebotomist Surgical TechnicianCorrect!2-*Healthcare Professional AssociationsInvolvement in issues and activities relevant to your professionOpportunities for continuing educationHealthcare Professional Associations (cont.)American Association of Medical Assistants (AAMA)American Association of Professional Coders (AAPC)The Association for Healthcare Documentation Integrity (AHDI)2-*Healthcare Professional Associations (cont.)American College of Physicians (ACP)American Health Information Management Association (AHIMA)American Hospital Association (AHA)American Medical Association (AMA)2-*Healthcare Professional Associations (cont.)American Medical Technologists (AMT)American Pharmacists Association (APhA)American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP)2-*Professional Associations and OrganizationsAmerican College of Physicians (ACP)Dedicated to providing education and information resources to the field of internal medicine and its subspecialtiesAmerican Hospital Association (AHA)Largest network of institutional healthcare providersSupports and promotes the interest of hospitals and healthcare organizations2-*2-*The Joint CommissionNon-profit organizationGoal is to maintain and elevate the standards of healthcare delivery Accreditation Establishes National Patient Safety Goals2-*Council of Ethical and Judicial Affairs (CEJA)Develops ethics policy for the AMAAddresses timely ethical issuesMaintains and updates the AMA Code of Ethics2-*Apply Your KnowledgeMatch association/organization with function:Right Answer!ANSWER:AMAAAHAAPCTJCCEJA Addresses ethical issues that confront physicians Establishes National Patient Safety Goals Established for those interested in medical assisting Society of internists Supports and promotes the interests of hospitals and healthcare organizations2-*In Summary2.1 Medical assistants typically work in ambulatory care settings using EHR. They can expect to work with many older patients and should practice and assist patients with preventive care. 2.2 The American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) certifies 24 major medical specialties. Within these specialties are several subspecialties. As new medical advances occur, the demand for more specialty areas will emerge.2-*In Summary (cont.)2.3 Medical assistants are members of a healthcare team. Understanding the duties of other healthcare professionals will assist you as a professional medical assistant. 2.4 A variety of medical specialty careers are available for the practicing administrative or clinical medical assistant. These careers require additional training or education and/or other certifications.2-*In Summary (cont.)2.5 Being a member of a professional association is essential to medical assisting practice. Knowledge of other healthcare and medical organizations allows the practicing medical assistant to function successfully within his profession.2-*They go the extra mile. They give their hearts, and lead with great minds.—Sharon HudacekFrom A Daybook for Nurses: Making a Difference Each DayEnd of Chapter 2
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