Bài giảng Chapter 13 Quantitative Analysis of Text

Study of texts or messages is central to the communication discipline Two data collection and analytical methods Content analysis -- quantitative Interaction analysis -- quantitative

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Chapter 13 Quantitative Analysis of TextStudy of texts or messages is central to the communication disciplineTwo data collection and analytical methodsContent analysis -- quantitativeInteraction analysis -- quantitative1Content AnalysisBoth data collection and analytical techniqueAllows researchers to make inferences by identifying specific characteristics of messagesManifest content Latent content2Content AnalysisObjectiveCarried out according to rules and proceduresSystematicIdentifying content to be codedCoding and interpreting contentGeneralityFindings should have theoretical relevance3Basic Principles of Content AnalysisA number of messages can be classified into a set of categoriesElements classified together have similar meaningsCategories produce frequency counts to allow for comparisonsResearcher addresses the relevance of frequencies to the theoretical propositions supporting the study4What Content Can Be Analyzed?Any message or aspect of a message that can be capturedSources, senders, or recipients of messagesReasons for sending messagesChannels messages are sent throughContent of messagesMessage effectsNonverbals, visual cues, sounds5Content Analysis ProcessDevelop hypothesis or research question that calls for content analysisSelect messages to be analyzedSelect categories and units for codingDevelop procedures for resolving coding decision differences Select a sample if all messages cannot be codedCode messages into categoriesInterpret the results of the coding6Selecting What to CodeAre the messages available or must they be created?Narrow the data set for the elements of interestMay still need to sample elementsMessages may have structural characteristics that need to be considering in sampling7Developing Content CategoriesBased on theoretical premise or can emerge from the dataWhat was saidHow message was saidCategories must beExhaustiveEquivalentMutually exclusiveBe careful of using “other” as a catchall category8Unit of AnalysisDiscrete element that is coded and countedRules for identifying the unit should be explicitTypical units of analysis in communicationWords or phrasesComplete thoughts or sentencesThemesParagraphsCharacters or speakersCommunicative acts, behaviors, or processesTelevision programs or scenes9Training CodersAll coders must be trainedIncreases coding agreementCommit coding system and rules to paperPractice on similar texts or messages Once sufficient degree of reliability is established, coders then work independently10Coding Reliability and ValidityIntercoder or interrater reliabilityUnitizing reliability Coding reliability Validity – appropriateness and adequacy of coding scheme for this set of messages11Interpreting Coding ResultsAnalysis must be relevant to hypothesis or research questionFrequenciesDifferencesTrendsPatternsStandards12Strengths and Limitations of Content Analysis ResearchStrengthsData close to the communicatorUnobtrusiveApplicable to a variety of text or message structuresLimitationsIf message cannot be captured, it cannot be codedCoding scheme may not reveal nuances of messagesSelection process may not be representative13Interaction AnalysisResearcher codes content of ongoing communication between two or more individualsIdentifies verbal or nonverbal features or functions of the stream of conversational elementsAllows complex analyses Intent and function of messagesEffect of messagesExamines messages relative to one another over time14Preparing and Coding InteractionInteraction is audio or videotaped and then transcribedCoders trainedInteraction must be unitizedUnitizing reliability calculatedInteraction coded according to coding schemeCoding reliability calculatedAll coding differences resolved15Analyzing and Interpreting the Coded DataReturn to the research question or hypothesis Compare to theoretical positionFrequency analysis is commonLook for patterns that simple frequency analyses cannot illuminate16Example of Interaction Analysis CodingUnitSpeakerComplete ThoughtCoding335TomI say it’s better to go to Harvard.Proposition336aTerryYou guys really think if he goes to school and he flunks out he can’t go for a degree anywhere?Proposition336bTerryHe can.Assertion336cTerryHe can still go to the other place and still get his degree there.Elaboration17Strengths and Limitations of Interaction AnalysisStrengthsElements before and after a coded element are considered Places emphasis on relative positionSeveral coding schemes have been developed and validated over timeLimitationsLimited by validity and representativeness of coding schemeOngoing streams of conversation are not neat and tidy – can be difficult to codeTime consuming18