Bài giảng PMBOK - Chapter 2: The Project Management Context and Processes

Three Sphere Model system philosophy, system analysis and system management Project Life Cycle Concept, development, implementation and support Project life cycle vs product life cycle Management reviews in project phases organization structure Success factors in project management Project Management job functions : 15 Skill required in project manager Project management process: initiating, planning, executing, controlling and closing PM processes vs knowledge areas

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Chapter 2: The Project Management Context and Processesadopted from PMI’s PMBOK 2000 and Textbook : Information Technology Project Management (author : Dr. Kathy Schwalbe)1contentsThree Sphere Modelsystem philosophy, system analysis and system managementProject Life CycleConcept, development, implementation and supportProject life cycle vs product life cycleManagement reviews in project phasesorganization structureSuccess factors in project managementProject Management job functions : 15 Skill required in project managerProject management process:initiating, planning, executing, controlling and closingPM processes vs knowledge areasChapter 22Projects Cannot Be Run In IsolationProjects must operate in a broad organizational environmentProject managers need to take a holistic or systems view of a project and understand how it is situated within the larger organizationSee example in opening and closing case to illustrate this conceptChapter 23A Systems View of Project ManagementA systems approach emerged in the 1950s to describe a more analytical approach to management and problem solvingThree parts include:Systems philosophyView things as systems, interacting components working within an environment to fulfill some purposeSystems analysisproblem-solving approachSystems managementAddress business, technological, and organizational issues before making changes to systems4Figure 2-1. Three Sphere Model for Systems Management5Project Life Cycle and Project phasesA project life cycle is a collection of project phasesProject phases vary by project or industry, but some general phases includeconceptdevelopmentimplementationsupportChapter 26Figure 2-2. Project Life Cycle and Project Phases7Product Life CyclesProducts also have life cyclesThe Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a framework for describing the phases involved in developing and maintaining information systemsTypical SDLC phases include planning, analysis, design, implementation, and supportChapter 28Sample SDLC ModelsWaterfall model: has well-defined, linear stages of systems development and supportSpiral model: shows that software is developed using an iterative or spiral approach rather than a linear approachIncremental release model: provides for progressive development of operational softwareRAD model: used to produce systems quickly without sacrificing qualityPrototyping model: used for developing prototypes to clarify user requirements9Figure 2-3. Spiral Model of Software Development (Boehm, 1988)10Project Life Cycles vs Product Life CyclesThe project life cycle applies to all projects, regardless of the products being producedProduct life cycle models vary considerably based on the nature of the productMost large IT products are developed as a series of projectsProject management is done in all of the product life cycle phasesChapter 211Why Have Project Phases and Management Reviews?A project should successfully pass through each of the project phases in order to continue on to the nextManagement reviews (also called phase exits or kill points) should occur after each phase to evaluate the project’s progress, likely success, and continued compatibility with organizational goalsChapter 212What Went Right?"The real improvement that I saw was in our ability toin the words of Thomas Edisonknow when to stop beating a dead horse.Edison's key to success was that he failed fairly often; but as he said, he could recognize a dead horse before it started to smell...as a result he had 14,000 patents and was very successfulIn IT we ride dead horsesfailing projectsa long time before we give up. But what we are seeing now is that we are able to get off them; able to reduce cost overrun and time overrun. That's where the major impact came on the success rate.”Cabanis, Jeannette, "'A Major Impact': The Standish Group's Jim Johnson On Project Management and IT Project Success," PM Network, PMI, September 1998, p. 7Chapter 213Understanding OrganizationsStructural frame: Focuses on roles and responsibilities, coordination and control. Organization charts help define this frame.Human resources frame: Focuses on providing harmony between needs of the organization and needs of people. Political frame: Assumes organizations are coalitions composed of varied individuals and interest groups. Conflict and power are key issues.Symbolic frame: Focuses on symbols and meanings related to events. Culture is important.14What Went Wrong?Many data warehousing projects are side-tracked or derailed completely by politics. Data warehousing projects are always potentially political because they cross departmental boundaries, change both the terms of data ownership and data access, and affect the work practices of highly autonomous and powerful user communities. Many organizations fail to admit that many data warehousing projects fail primarily because management and project teams do not understand and manage politics. Marc Demarest found over 1200 articles on the topic of data warehousing based on a journal search he did from July 1995 to July 1996. Many of those articles offer advice on how to run successful data warehousing projects and focus on the importance of design, technical, and procedural factors, when, in fact, political factors are often the most important in helping these projects succeed. Chapter 215Many Organizations Focus on the Structural FrameMost people understand what organizational charts areMany new managers try to change organizational structure when other changes are needed3 basic organization structuresfunctionalprojectmatrixChapter 216Figure 2-4. Functional, Project, and Matrix Organizational Structures17Table 2-1. Organizational Structure Influences on ProjectsThe organizational structure influences the project manager’s authority, but remember to address the human resources, political,and symbolic frames, too.PMBOK Guide, 2000, p. 1918Recognize the Importance of Project StakeholdersRecall that project stakeholders are the people involved in or affected by project activitiesProject managers must take time to identify, understand, and manage relationships with all project stakeholdersUsing the four frames of organizations can help meet stakeholder needs and expectationsSenior executives are very important stakeholdersChapter 219Table 2-2. What Helps Projects Succeed?According to the Standish Group’s report CHAOS 2001: A Recipe for Success, the following items help IT projects succeed, in order of importance:Executive supportUser involvementExperience project managerClear business objectivesMinimized scopeStandard software infrastructureFirm basic requirementsFormal methodologyReliable estimatesChapter 220Need for Top Management CommitmentSeveral studies cite top management commitment as one of the key factors associated with project successTop management can help project managers secure adequate resources, get approval for unique project needs in a timely manner, receive cooperation from people throughout the organization, and learn how to be better leadersChapter 221Need for Organizational Commitment to Information Technology (IT)If the organization has a negative attitude toward IT, it will be difficult for an IT project to succeedHaving a Chief Information Officer (CIO) at a high level in the organization helps IT projectsAssigning non-IT people to IT projects also encourage more commitmentChapter 222Need for Organizational StandardsStandards and guidelines help project managers be more effectiveSenior management can encouragethe use of standard forms and software for project managementthe development and use of guidelines for writing project plans or providing status informationthe creation of a project management office or center of excellenceChapter 223Define scope of projectIdentify stakeholders, decision-makers, and escalation proceduresDevelop detailed task list (work breakdown structures)Estimate time requirementsDevelop initial project management flow chartIdentify required resources and budgetEvaluate project requirementsIdentify and evaluate risks Prepare contingency planIdentify interdependenciesIdentify and track critical milestonesParticipate in project phase reviewSecure needed resourcesManage the change control processReport project statusTable 2-3. Fifteen Project Management Job Functions**Northwest Center for Emerging Technologies, "Building a Foundation for Tomorrow: Skills Standards for Information Technology,"Belleview, WA, 199924Suggested Skills for a Project ManagerCommunication skills: listening, persuadingOrganizational skills: planning, goal-setting, analyzingTeam Building skills: empathy, motivation, esprit de corpsLeadership skills: sets example, energetic, vision (big picture), delegates, positiveCoping skills: flexibility, creativity, patience, persistenceTechnological skills: experience, project knowledgeChapter 225Table 2-3. Most Significant Characteristics of Effective and Ineffective Project ManagersLeadership by example Visionary Technically competent Decisive Good communicator Good motivator Stands up to upper management when necessarySupports team membersEncourages new ideas Sets bad example Not self-assured Lacks technical expertisePoor communicator Poor motivator Effective Project Managers Ineffective Project Managers26Project Management Process GroupsProject management can be viewed as a number of interlinked processesThe project management process groups includeinitiating processesplanning processesexecuting processescontrolling processesclosing processesChapter 227Figure 2-5. Overlap of Process Groups in a Phase (PMBOK Guide, 2000, p. 31)28Table 2-5. Relationships Among Process Groups, Activities, and Knowledge Areas29Table 2-5. Relationships Among Process Groups, Activities, and Knowledge Areas30Developing an IT Project Management MethodologyMost projects are uniqueapproaches to project management are also uniqueMany organizations develop their own project management methodologiesespecially for IT projectsExample: Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan used the PMBOK as a guide in developing their IT project management methodologyChapter 231Figure 2-6. IT PM MethodologySee figure in text. Note thatmany parts of this approachmap to the PMBOK, but some activities have beenchanged to meet the needsof the organization.32SummaryThree Sphere Modelsystem philosophy, system analysis and system managementProject Life CycleConcept, development, implementation and supportOrganization structurefunctional, project and matrixSuccess factors in project managementmany, but most important is management supportProject Management job functions : 15define, identify, develop, estimate participate and reportSkill required in project managercommunications skill, organizational skill, team building, leadership skills, coping skill and technical skillProject management process:initiating, planning, executing, controlling and closing33