Bài giảng Project Management - Chapter eleven: Managing Project Teams

Synergy 1 + 1 + 1 = 10 (positive synergy) 1 + 1 + 1 = 2 (negative synergy) Characteristics of High-performing Teams Share a sense of common purpose Make effective use of individual talents and expertise Have balanced and shared roles Maintain a problem solving focus Accept differences of opinion and expression Encourage risk taking and creativity Set high personal performance standards Identify with the team

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11–2Where We Are Now11–3High-Performing TeamsSynergy 1 + 1 + 1 = 10 (positive synergy) 1 + 1 + 1 = 2 (negative synergy)Characteristics of High-performing TeamsShare a sense of common purposeMake effective use of individual talents and expertiseHave balanced and shared rolesMaintain a problem solving focusAccept differences of opinion and expressionEncourage risk taking and creativitySet high personal performance standardsIdentify with the team11–4Conditions Favoring Development of High Performance Project TeamsTen or fewer team membersVoluntary team membershipContinuous service on the teamFull-time assignment to the teamAn organization culture of cooperation and trustMembers report solely to the project managerAll relevant functional areas are represented on the teamThe project involves a compelling objectiveMembers are in close communication with each other11–5Building High-Performance Project TeamsRecruiting Project MembersFactors affecting recruitingImportance of the projectManagement structure used to complete the projectHow to recruit? Ask for volunteersWho to recruit?Problem-solving abilityAvailabilityTechnological expertiseCredibilityPolitical connectionsAmbition, initiative, and energyLesser Familiarity11–6Project Team MeetingsConducting Project MeetingsEstablishing Ground RulesPlanning DecisionsTracking DecisionsManaging Change DecisionsRelationship DecisionsManaging Subsequent MeetingsNorms of High-performance TeamsConfidentiality is maintained; no information is shared outside the team unless all agree to it.It is acceptable to be in trouble, but it is not acceptable to surprise others. Tell others immediately when deadlines or milestones will not be reached.There is zero tolerance for bulling a way through a problem or an issue.Agree to disagree, but when a decision has been made, regardless of personal feelings, move forward.Respect outsiders, and do not flaunt one’s position on the project team.Hard work does not get in the way of having fun.11–711–8Establishing a Team IdentityEffective Use of MeetingsCo-location of team membersCreation of project team nameTeam rituals11–9Managing Project Reward SystemsGroup RewardsWho gets what as an individual reward?How to make the reward have lasting significance?How to recognize individual performance?Letters of commendationPublic recognition for outstanding workDesirable job assignmentsIncreased personal flexibility11–10Orchestrating the Decision-Making ProcessProblem IdentificationGenerating AlternativesReaching a DecisionFollow-up11–11Managing Conflict within the Project TeamEncouraging Functional ConflictEncourage dissent by asking tough questions.Bring in people with different points of view.Designate someone to be a devil’s advocate.Ask the team to consider an unthinkable alternativeManaging Dysfunctional ConflictMediate the conflict.Arbitrate the conflict.Control the conflict.Accept the conflict.Eliminate the conflict.11–12Rejuvenating the Project TeamInformal TechniquesInstitute new rituals.Take an off-site break as a team from the project.View an inspiration message or movie.Have the project sponsor give a pep talk.Formal TechniquesHold a team building session facilitated by an outsider to clarify ownership issues affecting performance.Engage in an outside activity that provides an intense common experience to promote social development of the team.11–13Managing Virtual Project TeamsChallenges:Developing trustExchange of social information.Set clear roles for each team member.Developing effective patterns of communication.Keep team members informed on how the overall project is going.Don’t let team members vanish.Establish a code of conduct to avoid delays.Establish clear norms and protocols for surfacing assumptions and conflicts.Share the pain.11–14Project Team PitfallsGroupthinkBureaucratic Bypass SyndromeTeam Spirit Becomes Team InfatuationGoing Native11–15Key TermsBrainstormingDysfunctional conflictFunctional conflictGroupthinkNominal group technique (NGT)Positive synergyProject kickoff meetingProject visionTeam buildingTeam ritualsVirtual project team