Chapter 3: Market Supply and Demand

What is the Law of Demand? The principle that there is an inverse relationship between the price of a good and the quantity buyers are willing to purchase in a defined time period, ceteris paribus

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Chapter 3 Market Supply and Demand©2000 South-Western College Publishing Key Concepts Summary Practice Quiz Internet Exercises1In this chapter, you will learn to solve these economic puzzles:What is the difference between a “change in quantity demanded” and a “change in demand”?Can Congress repeal the law of supply in order to control oil prices?Does the price system eliminate scarcity?2What is the Law of Demand?The principle that there is an inverse relationship between the price of a good and the quantity buyers are willing to purchase in a defined time period, ceteris paribus* Return to previous slide while in slide show3What does “Ceteris Paribus” mean?All else remains the same4What is a Demand Curve?Depicts the relationship between price and quantity demanded5$20$15$10$5481620ABCDIndividual’s Demand Curve for Compact DiscsDemand CurvePQ6Why do Demand Curves have a Negative Slope?At a higher price consumers will buy fewer units, and at a lower price they will buy more units7What is a Demand Schedule?Shows the specific quantity of a good or service that people are willing and able to buy at different prices8What is Market Demand?The summation of the individual demand schedules9IMPORTANT - KNOW THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A CHANGE IN THE QUANTITY DEMANDED AND A CHANGE IN DEMAND10When price changes, what happens?The curve does not shift - there is a change in the quantity demanded11Decrease in PriceIncrease in Quantity Demanded12$20$15$10$51234PQ56789Fred’s Demand CurveD113$20$15$10$51234PQ56789Mary’s Demand CurveD214$20$15$10$53456PQ7891011Market Demand CurveD3121516 $25 1 + 0 = 1 $20 2 1 3 $15 3 3 6 $10 4 5 9 $5 5 7 12 Price Fred Mary Total DemandedMarket Demand Schedule for Compact Discs17$20$15$10$510203040ABA change in price causes a change in the quantity demandedDPQ5018When something changes other than price, what happens?The whole curve shifts - there is a change in demand19$20$15$10$510203040D1D2P50AWhen the ceteris paribus assumption is relaxed, the whole curve can shiftQB20Change in nonprice determinantIncrease in demand21What can cause a shift in a Demand Curve?1. Number of buyers in the market2. Tastes and preferences3. Income4. Expectations of consumers5. Prices of related goods22Price increasesUpward movement along the demand curveDecrease in quantity demanded23Price decreasesDownward movement along the demand curveIncrease in quantity demanded24Nonprice determinantLeftward or rightward shift in the demand curveDecrease or increase in demand25What is a Normal Good?Any good for which there is a direct relationship between changes in income and its demand curve26What is an Inferior Good?Any good for which there is an inverse relationship between changes in income and its demand curve27What are Substitute Goods?Goods that compete with one another for consumer purchases28What happens when the price increases for a good that has a substitute?The demand curve for the substitute good increases29What happens when the price decreases for a good that has a substitute?The demand curve for the substitute good decreases30What does a Direct Relationship between price and quantity mean? It means that the two move in the same direction31What are Complementary Goods?Goods that are jointly consumed with another good32What happens when the price increases for a good that has a complement?The demand curve for the substitute good decreases33What happens when the price decreases for a good that has a complement?The demand curve for the substitute good increases34What does an Inverse Relationship between price and quantity mean? It means that the two move in opposite directions35What is the Law of Supply?The principle that there is a direct relationship between the price of a good and the quantity sellers are willing to offer for sale in a defined time period, ceteris paribus36Why do Supply Curves have a Positive Slope?Only at a higher price will it be profitable for sellers to incur the higher opportunity cost associated with supplying a larger quantity37$20$15$10$510203040ABCSupply CurveA company’s Supply Curve for Compact DiscsPQ38 A $20 40 B 10 30 C 6 20 Point Price QuantityAn Individual Seller’s Supply for Compact Discs39$25$20$15$1010PQ1520Super Sound Supply CurveS12540$25$20$15$1020PQ2530High Vibes Supply CurveS23541What is a Market?Any arrangement in which buyers and sellers interact to determine the price and quantity of goods and services exchanged42What is Market Supply?The horizontal summation of all the quantities supplied at various prices that might prevail in the market43$25$20$15$1040PQ4555Market Supply Curve60S total44 $25 25 + 35 = 60 $20 20 30 50 $15 15 25 40 $10 10 20 30 $5 5 15 20 Price Super Sound High Vibes Total SuppliedMarket Supply Schedule for Compact Discs45IMPORTANT - KNOW THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A CHANGE IN THE QUANTITY SUPPLIED AND A CHANGE IN SUPPLY46When price changes, what happens?The curve does not shift - there is a change in the quantity supplied47$20$15$10$510203040ABCSupply CurveA change in price causes a change in the quantity suppliedPQ48Increase in PriceIncrease in Quantity Supplied49When something changes other than price, what happens?The whole curve shifts - there is a change in supply50$20$15$10$510203040S1S2When the ceteris paribus assumption is relaxed, the whole curve can shiftPQ51Change in nonprice determinantIncrease in supply52What can cause a shift in a Supply Curve?1. Number of sellers in the market2. Technology3. Resource prices4. Taxes and subsidies5. Expectations of producers6. Prices of other goods the firm could produce53$120$90$60$301,0002,0003,0004,000DSThe Supply & Demand for Tennis ShoesPQSurplusShortage54What is an Equilibrium?A market condition that occurs at any price for which the quantity demanded and the quantity supplied are equal55What is the Price System?A mechanism that uses the forces of supply and demand to create an equilibrium through rising and falling prices56Key Concepts57Key ConceptsWhat is the Law of Demand?What is a Demand Curve?Why do Demand Curves have a Negative Slope?When price changes, what happens?When something changes other than price, what happens?What can cause a shift in a Demand Curve?58Key Concepts cont.What is the Law of Supply?Why do Supply Curves have a Positive Slope?When price changes, what happens?When something changes other than price, what happens?What can cause a shift in a Supply Curve?What is a Market?What is an Equilibrium?59Summary60 The law of demand states there is an inverse relationship between the price and the quantity demanded, ceteris paribus. A market demand curve is the horizontal summation of individual demand curves. 61$20$15$10$5481216ABCDIndividual’s Demand Curve for Compact DiscsDemand CurvePQ62 A change in quantity demanded is a movement along a stationary demand curve caused by a change in price. When any of the nonprice determinants of demand changes, the demand curve responds by shifting. An increase in demand (rightward shift) or a decrease in demand (leftward shift) is caused by a change in one of the nonprice determinants. 63$20$15$10$510203040D1D2P50AWhen the ceteris paribus assumption is relaxed, the whole curve can shiftQB64 Nonprice determinants of demand area. the number of buyers,b. tastes and preferences.c. income (normal and inferior).d. expectations of future p;rice and income changes, ande. prices of related goods (substitutes and complements). 65 The law of supply states there is a direst relationship between the price and the quantity supplied, ceteris paribus. The market supply curve is the horizontal summation of individual supply curves. 66 A change in quantity supplied is a movement along a stationary supply curve caused by a change in price. When any of the nonprice determinants of supply changes, the supply curve responds by shifting. An increase in supply (rightward shift) or a decrease in supply (leftward shift) is caused by a change in one of the nonprice determinants. 67$20$15$10$510203040ABCSupply CurveA company’s Supply Curve for Compact DiscsPQ68$20$15$10$510203040S1S2When the ceteris paribus assumption is relaxed, the whole curve can shiftPQ69 Nonprice determinants of supplya. the number of sellers.b. technologyc. resource prices. d. taxes and subsidies.e. expectations of future price changes, f. prices of other goods. 70 A surplus or shortage exists at any price where the quantity demanded and the quantity supplied are not equal. When the price of a good is greater than the equilibrium price, there is an excess quantity supplied called a surplus. When the price is less than the equilibrium price, there is an excess quantity demanded called a shortage. 71 Equilibrium is the unique price and quantity established at the intersection of the supply and the demand curves. Only at equilibrium does quantity demanded equal quantity supplied. 72$120$90$60$301,0002,0003,0004,000DSThe Supply & Demand for Tennis ShoesPQSurplusShortage73 The price system is the supply and demand mechanism that establishes equilibrium through the ability of prices to rise or fall. 74 Chapter 3 Quiz©2000 South-Western College Publishing751. If the demand curve for good X is downward-sloping, this means that an increase in the price will result ina. an increase in the demand for good X.b. a decrease in the demand for good X.c. no change in the quantity demanded for good X.d. a larger quantity demanded for good X.e. a smaller quantity demanded for good X.E. When price changes there is a opposite change in the quantity demanded as measured on the horizontal axis. 762. The law of demand states that the quantity demanded of a good changes, other things being equal, whena. the price of the good changes.b. consumer income changes.c. the prices of other goods change.d. a change occurs in the quantities of other goods purchased.A. A “change in demand” means that the whole curve shifts, but a “change in the quantity demanded” means that there is movement along a stationary curve.773. Which of the following is the result of a decrease in the price tea, other things being equal?a. A leftward shift in the demand curve for tea.b. A downward movement along the demand curve for tea.c. A rightward shift in the demand curve for tea.d. An upward movement along the demand curve for tea.B. Because demand curves have a negative slope, as the price declines, the quantity demanded will increase.784. Which of the following will cause a movement along the demand curve for X?a. A change in the price of a close substitute.b. A change in the price of good X.c. A change in consumer tastes and preferences for good X.d. A change in consumer income.B. Movement along a given demand curve always occurs when the price changes, if anything other than price changes, then the whole curve will shift. 795. Assuming that beef and pork are substitutes, a decrease in the price of pork will cause the demand curve for beef toa. shift to the left as consumers switch from beef to pork.b. shift to the right as consumers switch from beef to pork.c. remain unchanged, since beef and pork are sold in separate markets.d. none of the above.A. With a decrease in the price of pork people will want to buy more pork; because beef and pork are substitutes, they will buy less at possible prices for beef. 806. Assuming that coffee and tea are substitutes, a decrease in the price of coffee, other things being equal, results in a (an)a. downward movement along the demand curve for tea.b. leftward shift in the demand curve for tea.c. upward movement along the demand curve for tea.d. rightward shift in the demand curve for tea.B. With a decrease in the price of coffee people will want to buy more coffee; because coffee and tea are substitutes, they will buy less at possible prices for tea.817. Assuming steak and potatoes are complements, a decrease in the price of steak willa. decrease the demand for steak.b. increase the demand for steak.c. increase the demand for potatoes.d. decrease the demand for potatoes.C. With a decrease in the price of steak people will want to buy more steak; because steak and potatoes are complements, they will buy more potatoes as well.828. Assuming that steak is a normal good, a decrease in consumer income, other things being equal, willa. cause a downward movement along the demand curve for steak.b. shift the demand curve for steak to the left.c. cause an upward movement along the demand curve for steak.d. shift the demand curve for steak to the right.B. Normal goods are goods that people will buy more of as their incomes increase and less of as their income decreases. 839. An increase in consumer income, other things being equal, willa. shift the supply curve for a normal good to the right.b. cause an upward movement along the demand curve for an inferior good.c. shift the demand curve for an inferior good to the left.d. cause a downward movement along the supply curve for a normal good.C. Inferior goods are goods that people will buy less of at possible prices as their income increases. 84B. A shift to the right of a supply curve along a stationary demand curve will result in a lower price as illustrated on the next page.10. Yesterday, seller A supplied 400 units of a good X at $10 per unit. Today, seller A supplies the same quantity of units at $5 per unit. Based on this evidence, seller A has experienced a (an)a. decrease in supply.b. increase in supply.c. increase in the quantity supplied.d. decrease in the quantity supplied.e. increase in demand.85$20$15$10$510203040S1S2When the ceteris paribus assumption is relaxed, the whole curve can shiftPQ8611. An improvement technology causes a (an)a. leftward shift of the supply curve.b. upward movement along the supply curve.c. firm to supply a larger quantity at any given price.d. downward movement along the supply curve.C. When price changes, the supply curve itself does not change, but when other things change, the whole curve will shift. A change in technology is an example of what can cause the supply curve to shift. 8712. Suppose auto workers receive a substantial wage increase. Other things being equal, the price of autos will rise because of a (an)a. increase in the demand for autos.b. rightward shift of the supply curve for autos.c. leftward shift of the supply curve for autos.d. reduction in the demand for autos.C. A change in costs for a business is a factor that will shift the supply curve. If costs go up, as in the case of having to pay higher wages, the supplier has less of an ability to supply cars. 8813. Assuming that soybeans and tobacco can both be grown on the same land, an increase in the price of tobacco, other things being equal, causes a (an)a. upward movement along the supply curve for soybeans.b. downward movement along the supply curve for soybeans.c. rightward shift in the supply for soybeans.d. leftward shift in the supply for soybeans.D. With an increase in the price of tobacco farmers will want to grow more tobacco to take advantage of the higher price. Farmers will therefore plant soybeans on land they used to use for tobacco.8914. If Qd = quantity demanded and Qs = quantity supplied at a given price, a shortage in the market results whena. Qs is greater than Qd.b. Qs equals Qd. c. Qs is less than or equal to Qd. d. Qs is greater than or equal to Qd. D. When there are more units of something being demanded than being supplied, a shortage will result.9015. Assume that the equilibrium price for a good is $10. If the market price is $5, a a. shortage will cause the price to remain at $5.b. surplus will cause the price to remain at $5.c. shortage will cause the price to rise toward $10.d. surplus will cause the price to rise toward $10.C. When the price of a good is below the market price, there are more units being supplied than being demanded. The result is a shortage and consumers will bid the price up toward the equilibrium price. 91100200300400DSSupply & Demand ExhibitPQ$2.00$1.50$1.00$.509216. In the market shown in the previous graph, the equilibrium price and quantity of good X area. $0.50, 200.b. $1.50, 300.c. $2.00, 100.d. $1.00, 200.D. The equilibrium price and equilibrium quantity are at the point where the quantity demanded equals the quantity supplied. This is the price toward which the economy tends.Previous graph9317. In the previous graph, at a price of $2.00, the market for good X will experience a a. shortage of 150 units.b. surplus of 100 units.c. shortage of 100 units.d. surplus of 200 units.D. At a price of $2.00 the quantity demanded is 100 and the quantity supplied is 300; 300 units minus 100 equals 200 units.Previous graph9418. In the previous graph, if the price of good X moves from $1.00 to $2.00, the new market condition will put a. upward pressure on price.b. no pressure on price to change.c. downward pressure on price.d. no pressure on quantity to change.C. Anytime the price is above the equilibrium price a surplus will result. Suppliers will therefore lower price to get rid of the surplus. Previous graph95Internet ExercisesClick on the picture of the book, choose updates by chapter for the latest internet exercises96END97