Bài giảng Business Research Methods - Chapter 3: Thinking Like a Researcher

Understand . . . The terminology used by professional researchers employing scientific thinking. What you need to formulate a solid research hypothesis. The need for sound reasoning to enhance research results.

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Thinking Like a ResearcherChapter 3Learning ObjectivesUnderstand . . . The terminology used by professional researchers employing scientific thinking. What you need to formulate a solid research hypothesis. The need for sound reasoning to enhance research results.Research Thought Leaders“Thought leaders, academics, business authors from the increasingly merging worlds of psychology, philosophy, economics, trends, semiotics are powerful forces, that have the ability to capture the imagination and attention at the highest level of business. Research needs to define itself more broadly, embrace the most exciting thinkers into our fold. We need to infuse our thinking with that of related fields.”Edward Appleton, senior European consumer insights manager,Avery DennisonLanguage of ResearchVariablesModelsTheoryTerms usedin researchConstructsOperationaldefinitionsPropositions/HypothesesConceptualschemesConceptsLanguage of ResearchClear conceptualizationof conceptsShared understandingof conceptsSuccess of ResearchJob Redesign Constructs and ConceptsOperational Definitions Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior 90 credit hoursHow can we define the variable “class level of students”?A Variable: Property Being StudiedVariableEventActCharacteristicTraitAttributeTypes of VariablesDichotomousMale/FemaleEmployed/ UnemployedDiscreteEthnic backgroundEducational levelReligious affiliationContinuousIncomeTemperatureAgeIndependent and Dependent Variable SynonymsIndependent Variable (IV) Predictor Presumed cause Stimulus Predicted from Antecedent ManipulatedDependent Variable (DV) Criterion Presumed effect Response Predicted to. Consequence Measured outcomeRelationships Among Variable TypesRelationships Among Variable TypesRelationships Among Variable TypesModerating Variables (MV)The introduction of a four-day week (IV) will lead to higher productivity (DV), especially among younger workers (MV)The switch to commission from a salary compensation system (IV) will lead to increased sales (DV) per worker, especially more experienced workers (MV).The loss of mining jobs (IV) leads to acceptance of higher-risk behaviors to earn a family-supporting income (DV) – particularly among those with a limited education (MV).Extraneous Variables (EV)With new customers (EV-control), a switch to commission from a salary compensation system (IV) will lead to increased sales productivity (DV) per worker, especially among younger workers (MV).Among residents with less than a high school education (EV-control), the loss of jobs (IV) leads to high-risk behaviors (DV), especially due to the proximity of the firing range (MV).Intervening Variables (IVV)The switch to a commission compensation system (IV) will lead to higher sales (DV) by increasing overall compensation (IVV).A promotion campaign (IV) will increase savings activity (DV), especially when free prizes are offered (MV), but chiefly among smaller savers (EV-control). The results come from enhancing the motivation to save (IVV).Propositions and HypothesesBrand Manager Jones (case) has a higher-than-average achievement motivation (variable).Brand managers in Company Z (cases) have a higher-than-average achievement motivation (variable). GeneralizationDescriptive Hypothesis FormatsDescriptive Hypothesis In Detroit, our potato chip market share stands at 13.7%. American cities are experiencing budget difficulties.Research Question What is the market share for our potato chips in Detroit? Are American cities experiencing budget difficulties?Relational Hypotheses Formats Correlational Young women (under 35) purchase fewer units of our product than women who are older than 35. The number of suits sold varies directly with the level of the business cycle. Causal An increase in family income leads to an increase in the percentage of income saved. Loyalty to a grocery store increases the probability of purchasing that store’s private brand products.The Role of HypothesesGuide the direction of the studyIdentify relevant factsSuggest most appropriate research designProvide framework for organizing resulting conclusionsCharacteristics of Strong HypothesesA Strong Hypothesis AdequateTestableBetter than rivalsTheory within ResearchThe Role of ReasoningA Model within ResearchThe Scientific MethodDirect observationClearly defined variablesClearly defined methodsEmpirically testableElimination of alternativesStatistical justificationSelf-correcting processResearchers Encounter problems State problems Propose hypotheses Deduce outcomes Formulate rival hypotheses Devise and conduct empirical tests Draw conclusionsWhy is curiosity important?Sound ReasoningExpositionArgumentInductionDeductionTypes of DiscourseDeductive ReasoningInner-city household interviewing is especially difficult and expensiveThis survey involves substantial inner-city household interviewingThe interviewing in this survey will be especially difficult and expensiveDeductive ReasoningApply deductive reasoning to this image. What will happen next?Inductive ReasoningWhy didn’t sales increase during our promotional event?Regional retailers did not have sufficient stock to fill customer requests during the promotional periodA strike by employees prevented stock from arriving in time for promotion to be effectiveA hurricane closed retail outlets in the region for 10 days during the promotionWhy Didn’t Sales Increase?Tracy’s PerformanceKey TermsArgumentCaseConceptConceptual schemeConstructDeductionEmpiricismExpositionHypothesisCorrelationalDescriptiveExplanatoryRelational Hypothetical constructInductionModelOperational definitionPropositionSound reasoningTheoryVariableControlConfounding (CFV)Dependent (DV)Extraneous (EV)Independent (IV)Intervening (IVV)Moderating (MV)Additional Discussion opportunitiesChapter 3PicProfile: Shopping & Mobile PhonesSnapshot: Politicized DefinitionsThe National Academies advises on scientific issues.Created voluntary guidelines for embryonic stem cell research.Comprehensive definition of terms accepted by every researcher.Volatile political issue = no nationwide guidelinesPoliticians fill the void with own definitions to exploit personal agenda.Snapshot: Radio Chips vs. Retinal ScansPrevent cattle-born disease with database of cattleTrack cattle from birth to slaughterTheory 1: RFID tag with tracking data in ear-mounted tagTheory 2: retinal scan with tracking data in hand held readerSnapshot: Gut Hunches“People usually experience true intuition when they are under severe time pressureor in a situation of information overload or acute danger, where conscious analysis of the situation may be difficult or impossible.”Pull Quote: Research Thought Leaders“Brand communities play a pivotal role for a brand connecting with its consumers, and as one of our Never Ending Friending focus group respondent notes: “I want brands to be my friends,” which means that consumers would like to have common ideas, conversations and benefits delivered to them on their own terms.”Judit Nagy vice president, consumer insightsMySpace/Fox Interactive MediaPulsePoint: Research Revelations55The percent of executives who admitted that their companies do not have an official policy for social networks.Formulating a HypothesisWal-Mart recently decided not to share its unit sales information with IRI, a large syndicated research distributor. After studying the data, Wal-Mart didn’t think it was getting enough value from competitor information in the syndicate. What hypothesis might have driven its research?Thinking Like a ResearcherChapter 3Photo AttributionsSlideSource26Photo by Pegy Greb, USDA-ARS27Tetra Images/Getty Images29©George Hammerstein/Corbis30Erik Isakson/Blend Images/age fotostock37©Brand X Pictures/PumnchStock38Jeff Vanuga, USDA-NRCS39Ingram Publishing