Bài giảng Chapter 14 Designing Qualitative Research

Variety of methodologies Researcher is primary data collection instrument Participation and observation are integrated Focuses on specific interactants in specific communication contexts and events

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Chapter 14 Designing Qualitative ResearchVariety of methodologiesResearcher is primary data collection instrumentParticipation and observation are integratedFocuses on specific interactants in specific communication contexts and events1Researcher’s Role in Qualitative MethodologiesRole of researcher is integrated within the context of individuals being observedIn the research context for extended periods of timeObserves the communication firsthand2Forms of Participant ObservationComplete participantParticipant-as-observerObserver-as-participantComplete observer3Identifying the Research FocusIs the research question personally interesting or compelling?Should be contextually bound Each project will result in a unique design solutionDevelop a purpose statement as a road mapConsider researcher’s flexibility to fit in4Consulting the LiteratureBecome familiar with content literatureTerminology or practices in this settingTheories that can be supported or refutedBecome familiar with research which used the method you’re planning to useBecome familiar with research techniques before gaining access5Asking or Stating the Research ObjectiveQualitative tends to emphasize description and explanationMore commonResearch question or series of questions Research purpose or objective Connected to context studied6Sampling in Qualitative StudiesSnowball samplingAsk participants for referralsNetwork samplingSeek individuals who fit profilePurposive samplingSeek individuals who meet criteriaMaximum variation samplingSeek participants until data are redundant7Sampling Qualitative DataImpossible to observe every interaction of all interactantsDetermine the sample by identifying settings, persons, activities, events, and timeDistinguish between routine, special, and untoward eventsRandomly selecting days and times increases the representativeness of your observations 8Gaining AccessConsiderWhat would you tell the people you approach that you wanted to study?What if they asked why you want to study them?Always consider alternative ways of gaining accessResearcher can still invade personal space or private conversations in public settings9Gaining AccessIf you take on a covert role, your acceptance by others depends on your ability to play the partConsider a gatekeeper or sponsorWill your observations provide the data you need?Is the setting suitable?Can you observe what you want to observe?Will your observations be feasible?Can you observe in such a way that you are not suspect to others?10Becoming Familiar with People and PlacesDraw a map of the interaction settingTake a tourAsk for relevant background11Developing TrustTrust must be addressed due to researcher’s intimate role with participantsMust be addressed in first contactTrust is person-specificTrust is established over timeTrust can be destroyed with one eventTrust between researchers and participants is paramount12Developing RapportAsk simple questionsMaintain positive conversation postureLearn names and titles Perform commitment actsLocate key informants13Collecting Qualitative DataObserving is purposeful not accidentalBe aware of the interdependence among people observed, their social situation, and the contextObserve for prolonged periods of timeObservation strategiesSeamless containerAsk questionsWrite descriptive then analytical notes14Field NotesField notes – created on the spot; a sequential record of what was observedRead through and reflect immediately after leaving the sceneJot down additional detail or questionsNumber and date each pageTake lots of notes – more than you believe are necessary15Audio or VideotapingDepends on the situation and researcher roleSome people are uncomfortable with recording devicesEven the best recordings cannot capture the full spectrum of nonverbal behaviorRecording devices can failEthically maintain the recordings – they cannot be played for others or circulated16If You Can’t Take NotesRetreat to a setting away from the interaction sceneTake frequent breaks so you don’t overload your memoryAfter leaving the interaction setting, review the notes you made – add detail and ask questions17What Constitutes Data in Qualitative Research?The concept of data is broadly cast in qualitative research – ranges from public to privateMore continuous than discreteField notesRecordingsWritten or electronic documentsPhotographs or mapsArtifacts18Your Impact as a ResearcherYour sex, age, and ethnicity affect what you observe and how you observe itReport similarities and differences that you believe affected data collection or interpretationResearch teams should be diverseMales and femalesAgeEthnic, racial, or cultural groups19Credibility as the CriterionCredibility may replace reliability and validityPlan for and carry out the research so that findings are believable to othersUse respondent validationParticipants can correct errorsParticipants can challenge interpretationsParticipants can provide their perspective20